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Full text of "Relative Positions"

Goreli Konumlar / Relative Positions 

Ekim/ October 2011 
Istanbul, Tiirkiye / Turkey 



Katkida Bulunanlar / Contributors 



Editor / Editor 

Onder Ozengi 

Yazarlar / Authors 

Ahmet Ogiit / Ashkan Sepahvand / Borga Kantiirk 
Boris Buden / Brian Holmes / Burak Arikan 
Caner Asian / Deniz Gul / November Paynter 
Onder Ozengi / Pelin Tan / Ulus Atayurt 

Sanatcilar / With Works by 

Borga Kantiirk / Inci Furni / Kanalkayit (Can Altay, Basak Akcakaya, 
Emrah Kavlak, Taylan Hacirustemoglu, Deniz Erdem, Cagri Kiiciiksayrac, 
Pelin Gore, Giilsah Taskm, Sevgi Aka, Nesli Yagh, Kaan Birol) 
Merve $endil / Pelin Tan / Vahit Tuna 

Ceviriler / Translations 

Duygu Dolek 
Erden Kosova 
Nazim Hikmet Dikbas 
M. Emir Uslu 
Pinar Oner 

Tasarim / Graphic Design 

Caner Asian 

Fotograflar / Photographs 

Sitki Kosemen 
Vahit Tuna 

Duzelti / Proofreading 

Ahu Ozden 
Duygu Dolek 
Erden Kosova 
William Buchina 

Te§ekkurler / Thanks 

Gerald Raunig, eipcp - European Institute for Progressive Cultural Policies 



Bu kitap, 16-30 Nisan 2009 tarihleri arasinda Suriye Pasaji'nda yapilan 
Goreli Konumlar ve Kanaatler adh sergiden yola ^lkilarak hazirlanmi^tir. 
This book is based on exhibition titled Relative Positions and Conclusions 

which took place at Suriye Passage in April 2009. 

Yayimlanan yazilann her turlii hakki, soruralulugu ve tasarrufu yazarlara aittir. 
All rights, responsibility and provisions belong to the authors. 

ISBN: 978-605-5612-016 




9 Goreli Konumlar ve Turk Uretimi 

Relative Positions and the Production of Difference 

ONDER OZENGl 

17 Mekanin Ozgurlesmesi Ve Ozerklik Sorunu 

Emancipation Of Space And The Question Of Autonomy 

PELiN TAN 

34 Alintilar 

Excerpt 

ASHKAN SEPAHVAND 

44 Bir Calgi Parcasi Olarak Beden 

Body as a Piece of Instrument 

ULUS ATAYURT 

49 Gayri Maddi Emek Ozerine Notlar 

Notes on Immaterial Labour 

BURAKARIKAN - DENIZ GUL 

66 Koninin icinden 

Through the Frustum 

NOVEMBER PAYNTER 

72 "- / " Izmir Guncel SanatArsivi 

Kayda Gecmeyeni Tekrar Dusunmek, Yeni Kayit Ve Tartisma Olanaklan 

"- 1 " Izmir Contemporary Art Archive 

Re-Thinking The Unrecorded, New Possibilities Of Recording And Argument 

BORGA KANTURK 

90 Caner Asian He Bir Monolog 

A Monologue with Caner Asian 

AHMET OGUT 

92 !5Dakika 

15 Minutes 

CANER ASLAN 

105 Krizsiz Elestiri: Elestirisiz Kriz 

Criticism Without Crisis: Crisis Without Criticism 

BORIS BUDEN 

125 Disiplin-Disi Sorusturmalar: Kurumlann Yeni BirElestirisine Dogru 

Extradisciplinary Investigations: Towards A New Critique Of Institutions 

BRIAN HOLMES 




GORELi KONUMLAR 
VE FARK ORETiMi 



ONDER OZENGl 



Kulturel, sinifsal ve cografi kimlik, son yillarda uzerinde daha fazla tartistigimiz, 
kendimizi tanimlarken ve ortakliklar kurarken onem atfettigimiz, konumlanmizin 
ve uretimlerimizin arka planinda islettigimiz kavramlar. Kendimizi icindeyasagimiz 
dunyaya, cografyaya, topluma, cemaate baglayan konum ve fark uretimleri, ilk refe- 
rans noktalanni olusturmalan yuzunden onemleri farkli derecelerde de olsa herzaman 
korunur. Farkli olceklerdeki mekanlarda, farkli konumlanmalara zemin olusturan bu 
kavramlar, dunyayi tasavvur ederken kati ve degismez olarak tahayyul edilen farklan 
da keskinlestiriler. 

"Kuresellesme" adi verilen, metalarm ve emegin dunya cografyasinda hizla dolasimi 
He birlikte, yine dunya uzerinde kok salmis toplumsal biraradaliklar, sosyo-ekonomik ve 
siyasal surecler tarafmdan yeniden uretildi, korundu, zayiflatildi veyeniden olusturuldu. 
Kent olceginde farklilik ve konum uretimi, hakim piyasa kosullan tarafmdan ve onun 
goreli arz/talep denklemine goreyasam tarzi ve ortak deger topluluklan gibi bicim- 
lerde yeniden veyeniden uretiliyor. Eski dunyaya atf edilen, gecersizlestigi Han edilen 
sinifsal, etnik ve siyasal aynmlar da yerini yenilerine birakti. Isci sinifmin yerini gocmene 
ya da baska etnik koken grubuna birakmasi gibi. Birzamanlann kimlik, kulturel aynm 



10 



ve farklann, kent olceginde gecerlilikleri tartisilir hale geldi. 

Yasadigimiz cografyada son yillarda bu kisirlastinlmis ve tek bir dusunsel olcege in- 
dirgenmis uretimler uzerinden toplumsal kavrayislar ve catismalar uretildigine fazloca 
tanik olduk. Islama, laik, dogulu, batili gibi bir 6lcu.de metalasmis kulturel kategori ve 
konumlar, var olan baska turlu fork uretimi yollarmin sesini duyulmaz hale getirdi. Ve 
bu baglamda ortaya cikan kimlik ve farkliliklan ideolojiklestirmek yoluyla belli olceklere 
sabitledi. 

Pekiyine bir toplumsal ve Bourdieu'ya gore sinifsal bir konum olan sanat ortami? 
Gunumuz giincel sanat ortami farkli konumsalliklar uretmenin yanmda cogu zaman 
varolan kategorileri icsellestirdi. Ulus ya da belli bir temsil pratiklerinin retorikleri ekse- 
ninde gerceklesen gosterilerin gonullu taraflan olabildi. 

Sanat alani yine banndirdigi potansiyelle ve baska turlu oluslarla girdigi yaratici 
iliskilerle konum ve fark uretiminin en etkili alani oldu. Ozellikle 90 sonrasi gelisen ile- 
tisim araclan ve cografi dolasimin goreli olarak artmasiyla sanat alaninda da disansi 
He cogalan karsilasmalar, oteki alanlarla girilen iliskiler, evrensel veyerel olan uzerine 
girisilen tartismalar bu ortami zenginlestirdi. Disiplinler arasi ve ustu arastirmalar ve 
eylemlerleyapilan flortler hem varolan kategorilere yenilerini ekledi hem de uretim 
merkezlerini demokratiklestirdi. Bundan dolayi sanat, konumlann kurumsallasmasinin 
ve ozgurlesmesinin arasindaki catismanin en etkili ve en uretici cephesi gorumunde. 

Bunun yanmda sanatm politika He girdigi karmasik iliski dolayisi He sorunsallastirdigi 
konum meselesi Ranciere'in unlu tespitinde daha da derinlesmekle kalmadi, bu iliskiyi 
her turlu baglanmanm otesine tasidi. 

"Sanat, toplumsal ve siyasi meselelerle ilgili meselelerle ilgili mesajlar ve duygular 
ileterek siyasi olmaz. Toplumsal yapilan, catismalanya da kimlikleri yansitma bicimi He 
de siyasi olmaz. Tarn da bu islevlere aldigi mesafe yoluyla siyasi olur. Sadece eserleriya 
da anitlan degil belirli bir mekan-zaman sensoryumunu sekillendirdigi olcude siyasi 
olur; cunku bu sensoyumun birlikte ve ayn, iceride ve disanda onde ve arkada vs. olma 
bicimlerini tanimlar. Sanat, pratiklerin, yasam bicimlerinin hissetme konusma tarzlan- 
nin bir duyuda (common sence), yani ortak bir sensoryum'da somutlasan bir "ortaklik 
duyusu" nda birlesme tarzini yeniden duzenleyen gorunurluk formlanni bicimlendirdigi 
olcude siyasidir." 



"Goreli konumlar ve kanaatler" adli sergide yer alan calismalar, bu meseleler ve du- 
sunceler etrafinda bir araya getirildi. Katilimcilan ve pratikleri He bu sergi, mekan ure- 
timi, bellek, arsivleme, kolektifbilgi ve baglam uretimi, toplumsal tahayyul ve catisma 
gibi konular uzerinden konum ve fark uretimi yollanni arastinyor. Kontrolsuzgorelilik 
ve sinirsiz postmodern eklektizm He iliskisinin banndirdigi tehlikelerin bilincinde olarak; 
benzerlik ve farkhlik arasindaki iliskileri, kisinin tikelligi He oteki nin evrenselligini tartis- 
makadina. 



Referanslar 

David Harvey, Umut Mekanlan, ((~.ev.Zeynep Gambetti), Metis Yayinlan, 2008. 
Jacques Ranciere, The Politics of Aesthetics, Continuum, 2006 




13 



RELATIVE 
POSITIONS AND 
THE PRODUCTION 
OF DIFFERENCE 



ONDER OZENGi 



Cultural, class- and geographical identity and culture are concepts we have incre- 
asingly discussed and put to use in the background of out positions and production 
in recent years and placed importance upon as we define ourselves and establish 
partnerships. Our positions and the productions of difference which accompany them 
connect us to the world, place, society and community we live in and retain their 
importance at various degrees since they constitute the initial point of reference. These 
concepts provide basis for different positioning at different scales and in different 
locations and they also hone differences imagined to be rigid and permanent as we 
conceive the world. 

As globalization rapidly spread across the world, deeply-rooted social forms were 
reproduced, protected or weakened, or reformed by socio-economic and political pro- 
cesses. On the urban scale, dominant market conditions determine the reproduction 
of difference and position according to the demand/supply eguation in forms such as 
life-style and common-value communities. Class-, ethnic and political distinctions att- 
ributed to the old world and declared invalid have been replaced by others, in the same 
manner that the working class has been replaced by the immigrants or groups from 



different ethnic backgrounds. The validity on the urban scale of identity based cultural 
distinction and differences of the past have been opened to question. 

In recent years we have increasingly witnessed the production of social conceptu- 
alizations and clashes via these sterilized productions reduced to a single ideological 
criterion. A number of considerably commoditized cultural categories and positions 
including Islamist, secular, eastern and western, have silenced other routes for the 
production of difference. Identities and differences emerging in this context have then 
been rendered immovable via ideologization. 

So what about the art environment which occupies a social and, according to Bo- 
urdieu, also a class position? Today's contemporary art environment has both produ- 
ced different positioning and also internalized existing categories. A section of the art 
environment found in itself the will to take sides in demonstrations realized in line with 
nationalist rhetoric or certain practices of representation. 

On the other hand, with the potential it contained and the creative relationships it 
entered into with other becomings, the field of art also became the most effective field 
for the production of positions and difference. Especially with the post-90s develop- 
ment of communication tools and a relative increase in geographical circulation, the 
environment was enriched with an increased number of meetings with the outside, 
relationships entered with other fields and discussions regarding the universal and the 
local. Flirtations with inter- and transdisciplinary research and actions both added 
new categories to existing ones and democratized production centres. 

This is how art has become the most effective and productive front for the clash 
between the institutionalization and emancipation of positions. In addition to this, 
the problem of positioning, problematized because of the complex relationship art has 
entered with politics, was not only extended as exemplified in Ranciere's famous ascer- 
tainment, but it also rescued art of its direct engagement with politics. 

"Art is not political owing to the messages and feelings that it conveys on the state 
of social and political issues. Nor is it political owing to the way it represents social 
structures, conflicts or identities. It is political by virtue of the very distance that it takes 
with respect to those functions. It is political insofar as it frames not only works or 
monuments, but also a specific space-time sensorium, as this sensorium defines ways 
of being together or being apart, of being inside or outside , in front of or in the middle 



15 



of, etc. It is political as its own practices shape forms of visibility that reframe the way 
in which practices, manners of being and modes of feeling and saying are interwoven 
in a commonsense , which means a "sense of the common" embodied in a common 
sensorium." 

These are the issues and thoughts around which the works in the exhibition have 
been brought together. Through its participants and practices, this exhibition investi- 
gates routes of position and difference production via topics including the production 
of space, memory, archiving, collective production of information and context, social 
imagination and conflict. In awareness of the dangers its relationship with unrestrai- 
ned relativism and unbounded postmodern eclecticism contains and in the name of 
discussing the relationship between resemblance and difference, the particularity of 
the individual and the universality of the other. 



References 

David Harvey, Spaces of Hope, Berkele, CA: University of California Press, 2000 
Jacques Ranciere, The Politics of Aesthetics, Continuum, 2006. 



Translated by Nazim Dikbas 




MEKANIN 
OZGORLE^MESi 
VE OZERKLiK 
SORUNU* 

PELlN TAN 



"Kurulmakta olan toplumun (instituting society), kurumsal toplum (institutive society) olarakyaratilmasi, her sefehnde bit ortak dunyadir (kosmos 
koinos), bireylerin, onlann turlerinin, iliskilerinin ve etkinlikierinin belirlenmesi; ama ayni zamanda nesnelerin, onlann turlerinin, iliskilerinin ve 
anlamlannin belirienmesi - bunlann hepsi ortak olarak kurulmus basvuru cergeveleri ve kutulan icinde tutulmaktadir, boyiece bir arada var olurlar. " 
Cornelius Castoriadis' 

Saninm sanat "mekaninin" elestirisi icin bir dayanak noktasi bulmak icin iki yol var: 
Mekanin (fiziksel ya da kurumsal) yapisi kolektif arzunun uretimiyle yayilabilir; ya da 
elestirel uygulamalarm sinirlandinldigi ve boyiece temsiliyetlerin bir arada var ola- 
bilmelerine yol acan gecici bir mekan yaratilabilir. Gunumuzde, bu gibi durumlarda, 
sanatci, kendi eserini hem ontolojik bir bakis acisiyla, hem de kendini konumlandirdigi 
ve ona gore hareket ettigi kulturel soylemlerle degerlendirmelidir. "Mekan"m bu proje 
dahilinde gercek bir anlami vardir; tarn anlamiyla fiziksel bir mekandan soz edilmek- 
tedir. Bir mekanin kullanilmak uzere ve ayni zamanda turn kurumsal cercevelerden 
ozgurlesmesi amaciyla gecici olarak isgal edildigi bu sergide, bu bir odak noktasidir. 
Bir mekani (sanatcmin "tekil" olarak kaldigi) kolektif bir arzunun pesinden gitmek 
amaciyla eylemler, etkinlikler ve ozel bir temsiliyet turu yaratmak icin isgal etmek ne 



* Bu metin "Social Production in Art and the Question of Autonomy" (Pelin Tan, edit.Liam Gillick) makalesinin birparcasindanyola cikilarak uretilmistir. 

1 Cornelius Cotariadis, The Imaginary Institution of Society, (Trans.by K.BIamey), The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts 
(original book 1 975, Galimard, Paris) 






an lama gelir? Sanatci eseriyle guclu bir mekansal kimlige sahip bir mekan arasinda 
nasil bir bag kurabilir? Sanatci Muruvvet Turkyilmaz 2 Goreli Konumlar ve Kanaatler 
sergisi ziyareti esnasinda yaptigi elestiride, serginin "mekan in ozgurlesmesi" konusunda 
basari saglayamadigina deginmistir. Mekanin ozgurlesmesi mekani simdiki/gecmisteki 
mekansal kimliginden ve belleginden ayirmaya calismak midir? Ya da sergide yer alan 
tekil islerin veya katilimcilarm temsiliyetlerinin birlikteligine izin verecekyeni bir me- 
kansallik yaratacak yeni bir an lam eklemek anlamma mi gelir? Sergi mekani, Beyoglu 
Istiklal Caddesi'ndeki Suriye Han binasi icindeki Suriye Pasaji'nin dorduncu katiydi. Gii- 
numuzde Beyoglu'nun mutenalastinlmis kulturel tuketiminin ana merkezini olusturan 
bu bolge, ayni zamanda 6-7 Eylul gibi (1955, Istanbul'un Rum azinliklanna karsi tertip 
edilen katliam) vahsi gecmisi belleginde barmdinyorya da "Cumartesi Anneleri" gibi si- 
yasi direnis ve taleplere ev sahipligi yapiyor. Buna ragmen, Istiklal Caddesi guncel sanat 
kurumlan ve galeriler He kurumsallasmakta; ortak bilgi ve kultur "normalize" olmaya 
devam etmektedir. Bununla beraber, Beyoglu'nun bolunmus alt-kulturunun dinamik 
icerigi, avangard etkinliklerin olanaklanni bir sekilde sanatsal bolge icinde tutarak eles- 
tiri eyleminin olasiligini tasimasini sagliyor. Bu baglamda, Turkyilmaz'm gorusleri, bu 
sergi suresince pesinde olunmasi amaclanan kurumsal elestirinin temelini bulmak icin 
bu toplanmanin, biraraya gelmemenin "ortak alan"i uzerinde tartismay a yonelik cesitli 
konulara yoneltiyor bizi. 

Temelde sosyal iliskilerin yeniden uretimiyle gelistirilen ama ayni zamanda bir 
"ozerklik" arayisi icinde olan bir uygulama pesinde olmayi gerektiren bir sanat "bicimi" 
bulmaya calismak bir ikilem icerir. Bence bu ikilemin birbiriyle iliski icinde olan cesitli 
kavramsal katmanlan vardir; bolge/ smirlar, arti-deger ve soylemsel kurum pratigi gibi. 
Temelde, sergi yapisi kolektif, tutarsiz bir kisiler arasi iiretim olarak degerlendirilmesi 
gereken kisa vadeli gecici bir sergi olarak kurulmustur. Anton Vidokle He UNP projesi 3 
hakkinda yaptigimiz gorusmelerin birinde, travmatik ve siyasi gegmisten etkilenmis 



2 "Mekanin ozgurle^mesi" icinde, mekanin duruju, ki bu tarihi, bellegi, yeniligi, eskiligi, vb. kendini varedi$ hallerini, sergi bunyesinde yasatmak zor 
olabiiiyor zarnan zaman. Bu da, sergileme yontemiyle, hem isleri hem de mekani oldukca yoruyor, esir aliyor gibi geliyor bana. Bunu kirmanin biryolu 
da, artik sergi mekanini kurmadaki hizlilik, bir tariheyetistirme telasi, sanatcinin sergileme sureciyle, isi iiretim siirecindeki zaman farki, atolye ve sergi 
mekani arasinda yasanilan bosluklar beni (kendi isimde de ulasmaya calistigim gibi), sergileme surecini, isi, sergi mekanini atolyeye donusturerek 
yasamak, yasatmak olabilir diyorum. (Muruvvet Turkyilmaz)" - soylesi Pelin Tan, Mayis, 2009. 

3 www.unitednationplaza.org 



19 



olan cemaatya da bolgelere yapilan yerel mudahalelerin etigi uzerinde durmustuk 4 . 
Ornegin UNP-Berlin projesi, Dogu Berlin'de Lenin'in heykelinin bulundugu meydaninda- 
ki bir supermarketin eski deposunda, devrimin basarsizligi baglamindan hareket eden 
birdizi seminer, performans ve tartismadan olusuyordu. Vidokle He yerel alanlan ideo- 
lojik bir cerceve ve kolektif bir yontem He isgal eden "surece yayilmis" projeler hakkinda 
konusurken uzerinde durdugumuz iki temel nokta vardi: Oncelikle, kolayca kurumsal 
bir baglama girebilecek ve sosyal gerceklikleri (ya da sosyal hizmetleri dogrudan taklit 
etme tehlikesine diisen) dogrudan sunabilmek amaciyla ozelestiriden (self-reflexive) 
yoksun sosyal muhendislik projelerinin rolu; Ikinci olarak ise, yabancilasma etkisi ve 
tamamen yerel olarak farkli bicimde cercevelenmis bir bolgenin gercekliklerini ve trav- 
malanni gozardi etmekte cok naifkalarak projeyi surdurmek uzerinde durduk. Her iki 
konuyla da ilgili olarak; bir sanat uretimi 5 formati olarak bir okulya da ucretsiz egitim 
atolyesi kurmak ideolojiye ve bolgesel referanslara dair guclu baglantilar icermelidir. 
Digeryandan, boyle bir formati (ornegin bu sergiyi) daha ileri bir ideolojik temel uzeri- 
ne insa ederken, (kurumsal jestleri taklit ederek gecici de olsa kurumsallasma tehlikesi- 
ne dusebilen) kurumsal olmayan bir mekan yaratmadaki ikilem sanatsal pozisyonun 
icinde yer almakta. Bu ikilemi Borga Kanturk ve Pelin Tan'in projelerindeya da calisma 
odalannin, ofislerinin, arsivlerinin sunumlannda gorebiliriz. Kanturk ve Tan'in projeler! 
ve uygulamalan radikal bilgi uretimi ve kurumsal jestlerin kabulunu sunuyor olsa da, 
bu projeler yine de kurumsal yapiya gonderme yapmaktan kurtulamamaktadir. Bu- 
rada, sosyal uretimin bir formati olan ve fikrimce cemaat ekonomisi cercevesi icinde 
tanimlanamaz bir "arti deger"e gonderme yapan atolye modeline daha fazla odak- 
lanmak istiyorum. Burada sosyal uretim derken neyi kastediyorum?: Icinde bulundugu 
soylemsel baglam mi yoksa ekonomik mi? Sanatcilar belirli bir ekonomik degere sahip 
boylesi eserleri uretiyor mu, yoksa boyle bir formati mumkun kulan sosyal arti deger 
uzerine kurulu turn bu oznelliklerarasi durum mudur? "Mar olan arti deger akislan" 
arasindaki kolektif sanat uygulamalan arasindaki iliski nedir? 6 . 

4 Plan, A.Vidokle, Social Engagement in art projects, conversation, Muhtelif, no. 1, 2006, editors: Pelin Tan, Ahmet Ogut, Adnan Yildiz, Istanbul. 

5 Oretim terimini yalnizca ekonomik deger olarak degil, her turlu sanat bicimi icin kullaniyorum. 

6 Makalelerinde (Ceren Ozselcuk&Yahya M.Madra (2005), Psychoanalysis and Marxism: From Capitalist - All To Communist Non-All, 

Psychoanalysis&Society Journal, 10, p. 79-97), Ozcelik ve Madra arti degeri ve onun dagitimini tanimlarken argumanlannin sonunda kimin olacagini 
ve bunu islah etmenin hegemony karsiti birdugum olup olmadigini sorgularlar: "Bizegore, arti degerin uretildigi, ozellestirildigi ve paylastinldigi 
bigimden kaynaklanan bir etkinin oldugu her durumda smifla olan iliski ortaya gikmaktadir. Bu durumda evler, universiteler, mahalleler, otoyollar 
ve dernekler ve uluslararasi kuruluslar gibi gesitli alanlarda sinifiliskilerini kurmak igin siirekli girisimler mevcuttur. Benzer bir sekilde, smifiliskileri var 



20 



Sosyal uretimin dagitimi icin yerel bir etik olusturmaya calisirken Gibson/Graham su 
soruyu sorar: "Sosyal arti degerlerin ureticisi olmayanlar arti degerlerin nasil uretilecegi, 
ozellestirilecegi, dagitilacagi ve kimlere ulastinlmayacagi konusunda nasil bir soz sa- 
il ibi olabilir?" 7 Bu soruya gelmeden once, burada (bu sergide) sosyal arti deger yalnizca 
etkinlikleri, seminerleri ve belirli duzensiz ifadelere dayanan kutuphaneyi kuran veyara- 
tan sanatcilann uretiminin sonucu degil, ayni zamanda gercekten de kendi atolyelerin- 
de muhtelif uygulamalara imza atiyor olabilecek katilimcilann da katkilanyla ortaya 
cikmistir. Buna gore, genel olarak, bu modelin yalnizca ortami ve duzensiz mekani 
yaratmak icin degil, ayni zamanda ozgur calisan bir sanat mekaninda ya da bunun 
gibi surec temelli coklu model lerde ortaya cikan cesitli bicimlerdeki ihtiyac fazlasi ure- 
tim olan arti degerin ortaya cikmasi icin de "cemaate" ihtiyaci vardir. Bu sanat toplan- 
malan, seminerler ve etkinlikler esnasinda uretilen degerler ayni zamanda acik uclu bir 
risk iceren bolgenin, sehrin ya da kurumun duzensiz iliskisinden kaynaklanir. Gibson- 
Graham'm sorusuna birazdonecegim, ancak oncesinde "deger" meselesini birazdaha 
eselemek istiyorum. Zamana bagli is ve degeri Marksist gorus ve degisen sanat uretimi/ 
nesnesi He karsilastirmayi denerken Diedrich Diederichsen suna isaret eder: "Sanat eser- 
leri ve sanat projeleri ticari bicimlerinden bagimsiz olarak icerigi acik hale getirme ve 
estetik tecrubeyi ortaya cikarma becerisine sahiptir." 8 Sanat eseri -ticari degerinin ya- 
ninda- kendini diger durumlara, sartlara, bilgilere, sanat eserlerine baglayabilir ve yen! 
iliski katmanlan yaratabilir; boylelikle dagitim isi sosyal iliskiyeyol acar. Diederichsen'in 
"dizin 9 " aciklamasindan sozedecegim, burada kendisi sanat nesnesinin artikfiziksel 
degil metafizik bir dizin icinde yer aldigini ileri surer: "Sosyal iliski icinde bir semboldur: 
anlaminin ve konumunun diger isler He iliskili bicimde farkli sekillerdeki uretiminde. 
Bununla beraber degeri, aurasi He baglantili olacak sekilde belirlenir, ve bu durumda 



olan arti deger-gali$ma ili§kisini bozan veyeni bir mecra agan ya da niteliksel agidan yenilerini ureten ge§itli soylemler (cinsiyet, politika, yasa, din, 
ekoloji, ve ekonomi) He ^ekillenmektedir. Buna kar^ilik, sinifsuregleri ilijkileri ba^kalannin pahasina olacak belirli politik 6zde§le$meleri ve kulturel 



talepler muhafaza eder ..." s.82, Ozgelik/Madra. Futrher: ". . . Hegemonya kar^iti dugum noktasinin olmamasi durumunda, bu birbirinden farkli 
"talep eylemleri" gergekten de kolaylikla kapitalistkitlenin bunyesine almabilir. Inaniyoruz ki komunizm dusturu her bir talep eylemine bir "am deger" 
anlami kazandirabilecek faydali bir hegemony kar§iti dugum noktasi i§levi gorebilir.".s.94 

7 J.K.Gibson-Graham, Postcapitalist Politics, The University of Minnesota, 2006, Minneapolis. 

8 Diedrich Diederichsen, On (Surplus) Value in Art, Witte de With Publisher, Sternberg Press, Reflections 1, 2008, Rotterdam, NY, Berlin, p.44. 

9 Indexing: surplus value, the balance power between social classes. 



dizinsel olur" 10 . Marksist bakis acisindan, "dizin" sin if Ian siraya koyma ve tanimlamada- 
ki guc iliskilerine isaret eder. Bununla beraber, oznel soylemlerin ortaya ciktigi ve uyum- 
suzlukyarattigi bunun gibi sanat projelerinde, "duzensiz" uygulamalar degerin yanmda 
ticari degerinden bagimsiz bir estetik deneyim yaratan kolektifguc olarak ortaya cikar. 
Gillick, etkinligi yaratmadaki toplumsal birliktelik He bunun yerel bir eylem olmasi ara- 
sindaki bagi aciklamayi dener: "Ifadeler ortaya ciktiklan durumlardaki sartlara bagli- 
dir, ve varoluslan bir soylem alani icinde baslar. Olay seklindeki ifadeler duzensiz olan 
icinde onemlidir -elde varolan sanat baglaminin otesinde bir fiziksel potansiyel sunan 
bir "konum" saglarlar. Bir ifadeyi oyuna sokmak "bir noktada" bir olay yaratacaktir - ya 
da yakm gecmisi telafi etmek icin yakm gelecegeyansitilan bir olaylar dizisi" 1 '; calisma 
esnekliginden duzensiz kulturel alan icinde yerini bulan gereksizlik arasindaki gecisi 
birazdaha tarifeder. 12 Suriye Pasaji tecrubesini sanatcilann ihtiyac fazlasi bir calisanin 
konumunu degistirdigi (bu konumu duzelttigi de diyebiliriz) bir surec temelli perfor- 
matif sergi ya da yalnizca kolektif ifadeyi, calisma sureci esnasinda gelisen duzensiz 
olana meydan okuyan bir yer olarak goruyorum. Gibson/Graham 'in sosyal arti degerin 
paylastinlmasinin etik acisindan yerini bulmaya calistiklan iddialanna' 3 gonderme 
yaparken; belirli bir bicimde uretilmeyen ancak uretici olmayan tarafindan bile talep 
edilen bir degerden soz edilmektedir. Bu durum ideolojik arkaplan araciligiyla duzensiz 
iliskilerpesinde olan giincel sanat uygulamalannin kolektif yerini aciklamaya ve bek- 
lendigi uzere etik konumlandirmayi sorgulamayi saglayacak olan sosyal arti degerin 
paylastinlmasini talep etmek adina kendilerini kurumsal yapidan ozgurlestirmelerine 
nasil yardimci olabilir? Ifadeye ve hangi sartlarda duzensiz olacagina kim karar veriyor, 
ve bunlari kim paylasiyor, ozellestiriyor ve dagitiyor? 



10 p. 42-43, Ibid. 

/ 1 Liam Gillick, Maybe it would be better if we worked in groups of three? Part 1 of 2: The Discursive, E-Flux Journal, http://www.e-flux.com/ 
journal/view/35 

12 Mesela, Basso (Berlin) gibi diger bir sanatgi kolektifini ele alirsak: belirli maddi bir butgesi ve geliri olmayan, bos bir depo mekani uzerinden 
islemeye galisan kolektif bir dizi etkinlik, performans ve yayin agi gergelestiren Basso, Berlin kentinin alt kultur ve avangard egilimlerinden 
beslenmekte. Basso sanatgilan, bireysel olarak uretimlerini devam etmekle birlikte, Basso mekaninda toplasma, bir araya gelme, ortak sanatsal 
uretimler gergeklestirmekteler. Kurumsal birelestiri gergevesinde, Basso mekanini gegici bir kuruma (omegin muze gibi) ya da davet ediidikleri 
galeri mekanmayerlesip hergun paylasilan etkinlikler ve eylemler He mekani gegici de olsa donusturmektedeler. Basso, YusufEtiman tarafindan 
koordine edilmektedir. www.basso-berlin.de 

13 p.91, Gibson-Graham: "Sosyal arti deger an itibariyle uretimde bulunmayanlan (mesela gocuklar ve gokyasli insanlan) desteklemek igin 
kullanilabilecegi gibi sosyal duzenin maddi ve kulturel altyapisini insa etmek igin de kullanilabilir. Bu sekilde etik kararlann ve politik gekismelerin 
potansiyeline sahiptir." 



Sanatci Muruvvet Turkyilmaz ileyaptigim gorusmede sanatci yerlesik kurumsal 
yapiyla ilgili tereddutlerini anlatiyor ve sergi mekaninin surekli bir atolye (fabriko) 
mekanma donusturulmesini oneriyordu. Bu serginin yapisi bir apartman dairesinin 
(sergi mekaninin kuruldugu yer) mekansal kimligine bagli olmasi beklenen suregiden 
bir fabrika alani uzerine kurulmustu. Kendini gecici olarak disiplinlerustu (extradiscipli- 
nary) bir uygulama kurumu olarak yapilandirmaya gi risen sergi, yeni bir ozdusunumsel 
(self-reflexive) katmani olusturmakta midir? Soruyu baska sekilde sormak gerekirse; bu 
ozdusunumsellik bir eylem midir? Holmes' 4 'un bu kitapta yer alan metnindeki "direnis 
standartlan" nosyonuna sahip dedigi yapisal bir incelemeye sahip oldugu kesin. Ancak 
bu durumda, konumun gercekligi ve Istanbul'daki altust olmus yararsiz sanat kurum- 
lan ve ajanlan goz dniinde bulunduruldugunda bu standartlar nelerdir? Gunumuzde, 
cogu sanat projesinde ve sergide turn disiplinlerustu uygulamalann radikal politika- 
larla baglantili olmadigmi deneyimliyoruz. Bana gore, bu sergi projesi bize radikal bir 
eylemin kesin bicimde tanimlanmis ozerk biryapiya ihtiyac oldugunu akildan cikar- 
madan, ozerkligin standartlan ve sinirlan hakkmda yeni sorular sordurabilir. Yine bu 
kitapta yer alan makalesinde Buden'in 15 Agamben'e referans verirken guzel bicimde 
belirttigi gibi: "Kendi zamanimizi bir kriz olarak deneyimleme becerisine sahip degiliz..."; 
ki bence bu sergi projesi bir elestiri eyleminin kismi bir parcasini olusturuyor. Eksik olan 
ise su: da ha fazla krize ihtiyacimiz var... 



14 Brian Holmes, Disiplin-disi Soru$turmalar: Kurumlarm Yeni Bir Ele$tirisine Dogru, (Bu kitap iginde). 

15 "Bu gunumuzdeki durum icin tipiktir: ne zamanimizi kriz olarak tecrube edebiilriz nede bir elestiri eylemi araaligiyla ozneler olmaya calisinz. 
Klasik modernism doneminde, kriz daima bir kinlma olasiligi olarak tecrube edllmlstir ve elestiri bu kinlmanm kendisi olmustur. Bugiin acikca boyle 
bir tecrubeyi yasamiyoruz artik. Kriz ve elestiri arasindaki etkilesimde artik herhangi bir tecrube yoktur. Giorgio Agamben'in uyansini basltce yok 
saymak mumkun degildlr: turn zamanlann en onemli tecrubesi bundan herhangi bir tecrube gikaramayacak oldugumuz gercegidir. Sonuc krize 
karsi kor ve sagir olan sabit bir elestiridir, kisacasi -mukemmel bir uyumi" Boris Buden, "Krizsiz Elestiri: Elestirisiz Kriz", (Bu kitap icinde). 



23 



Kaynakfa 

Boris Buden, Krizsiz Elestiri: Elestirisiz Kriz, (Bu kitap icinde). 

Diedrich Diederichsen, On (Surplus) Value in Art, Witte de With Publisher, 

Sternberg Press, Reflections 1, Rotterdam, NY, Berlin, 2008 

J.K.Gibson-Graham, Postcapitalist Politics, The University of Minnesota, 

Minneapolis, 2006. 

tiam Gillick, Maybe it would be better if we worked in groups of three? 

Part I of 2: The Discursive, E-Flux Journal, http://www.e-flux.com/journal/ 

view/35 



Brian Holmes, Disiplin-disi Sorusturmalar: Kurumlarm Yeni Bir Elestirisi- 

ne Dogru, (Bu kitap icinde). 

Ceren Ozselfuk&Yahya M.Madra, Psychoanalysis and Marxism: From 

Capitalist - All To Communist Non-All, Psychoanalysis & Society Journal, 

10,2005. 

Plan, A.Vidokle, Social Engagement in art projects, conversation, Muhtelif, 

no. 1, 2006, editors: Pelin Tan, Ahmet Ogut, Adnan Yildiz, Istanbul, 2006. 



Turkce Ceviri: Duygu Dolek 




EMANCIPATION 
OF SPACE AND 
THE QUESTION OF 
AUTONOMY* 



PELIN TAN 



"The creation of instituting society, as instituted society, is each time a common world (kosmos koinos), the positing of individuals, of their 
types, relations and activities; but also the positing of things, their types, relations and signification - all of which are caught up each time in 
receptacles and frames of reference instituted as common, which make them exist together. " 
Cornelius Castoriadis' 

I guess there ore two ways to find a base for a criticism of the "space" of art: Either the 
structure of space (physical and institutional) can be diffused with the production of 
collective desire; or a temporary space can be created in which critical practices can 
be constrained and lead to co-existing representations. Nowadays, in such cases, the 
artist here, has to deal both with her production from an ontological perspective, the 
form of her art and also with the cultural discourses in which she positions herself and 
acts. "Space" has a literal meaning here; it is simply the physical space. It is a focus 
point as this exhibition based on a temporary occupation of a space in order to work 
with the space and also emancipate any institutional frame. What does it mean to 
occupy temporarily a space in order to create actions, events and a certain kind of 
representation to pursue a collective desire (in which artists remain "singular")? How 
can the artist relate her work to a space that has a strong spatial identity? Considering 

* This text is part of the larger version "Social Production in Art and the Question of Autonomy" (Pelin Tan, edited by Liam Gillick). 

I Cornelius Castoriadis, The Imaginary Institution of Society, (Trans.by K.BIamey), The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts (original book 1975, 
Galimard, Paris) 



26 



the critique of the artist Muruvvet Turkyilmaz 2 (during her visit to the exhibition Rela- 
tive Positions and Conclusions); she mentioned that the exhibition didn't succeed in 
"emancipating the space". Does emancipating the space mean trying to create a space 
that is detached from its current/past spatial identity and memory? Or does it mean to 
attach a new meaning in order to create a new spatiality that would allow the constel- 
lation of representation of the singular works or participants that are taking place in 
the exhibition? The space was at the 4th floor ofSuriye Pasaji (Suriye Passage, in the 
building ofSuriye Han), which is situated in Beyoglu, Istiklal Street. The site is currently 
overwhelmed by the gentrified cultural consumption identity of Beyoglu, but also with 
the brutal past of 6-7 September (1955, Istanbul Pogrom against Istanbul's Greek Mi- 
nority). Although the site hosts political demonstrations such as "Cumartesi Anneleri" 3 
istiklal Street is highly institutionalized with contemporary art institutions and galler- 
ies. However, the rich constellation of the fragmented underground culture of Beyoglu 
is somehow keeping the potentialities of avant-garde acts in the artistic realm that it 
still contains the possibility of an act of criticism. In this context, Turkyilmaz's opinion 
leads to several aspects that are worth discussing about the "common place" of this 
gathering in order to find out the base of the institutional criticism that has been aim 
to pursued during this exhibition. 

There is a dilemma about trying to find a "form" of art that is basically developed 
through the re-production of social relations but also about finding a practice that is 
searching for an "autonomy". I think the dilemma has several conceptual layers that 
are interrelated to each other; such as territory, surplus value, and discursive institu- 
tionalism. Basically, the structure of this exhibition was set-up as a temporary short 
term exhibition, which should be mainly considered as a collective, discursive inter- 
subjective production. In one of our conversation with Anton Vidokle, concerning the 
UNP project 4 , we were focusing on the ethics of local intervention in a community or 

2 "Mekanin bzgurlesmesi" icinde, mekanin durusu, ki bu tarihi, bellegi, yeniligi, eskiligi, vb. kendini varedis hallerini, sergi bunyesinde yasatmak zor 
olabiliyorzamanzaman. Bu da, sergilemeybntemiyle, hem isleri hem de mekani oldukga yoruyor, esir aliyor gibi geliyor bana. Bunu kirmanin biryolu 
da, artik sergi mekanini kurmadaki hizlilik, bir tariheyetistirme telasi, sanatginin sergileme sureciyle, isi uretim surecindeki zaman farki, atblye ve sergi 
mekani arasinda yasanilan bosluklar beni (kendi isimde de ulasmaya calistigim gibi), sergileme surecini, isi, sergi mekanini atblyeye donusturerek 
yasamak, yasatmak olabilir diyorum.fMuruvvet Turkyilmaz)" - from the conversation with Pelin Tan, May 2009. 

3 Saturday Mothers: Since May 1995 relatives of those who have "disappeared" in police custody have been holding a weekly vigil in Istanbul, http:// 
www.amnesty.org/en/Hbrary/info/TUR44f0 1 //1998/en 

4 www.unitednationplaza.org 



territory overwhelmed by the traumatic and political past 5 . UNP-Berlin took place as 
a series of seminars, performances and discussions on a certain context in a former 
space of a warehouse of a supermarket in one of the sites /squares of former social- 
ist Berlin where Lenin's sculpture used be. There were two main points that we focused 
with Vidokle on the process based projects that occupy local sites with an ideologi- 
cal framework and collective method: Firstly the role of the social engineering of such 
projects that could simply move into an institutional context and could loose its self- 
reflexivity in order to directly present the social realities (or mimics of social services). 
Secondly, we emphasized on the alienation effect and the ethics of locality of an art 
project landing and proceeding in a totally different locally-framed territory by remain- 
ing very naive in ignoring the current realities and traumas of this territory. Concerning 
both points; establishing a school or a free education factory as a format of production 
of art 6 should strongly relate to ideology and territorial references. 

On the other hand, constructing such a format (for example this exhibition) on a fur- 
ther ideological base and at the same time creating a non-institutional space (which 
has the danger to fall into institutional trap by mimicking it) creates a dilemma inert 
in the artistic positioning. We might see this dilemma in the projects or representations 
ofBorga Kanturk's and Pelin Tan's working rooms, offices, archives. Even though the 
projects and practice offers radical knowledge production and appropriation of insti- 
tutional gestures, the projects still refer to institutional bodies. Here, I would like focus 
more on the model of a factory, a working space as an exhibition, which is a format 
of a social production that in my opinion refers to an indefinable "surplus value" in the 
framework of community economy. What do I mean here as a social production? Is 
it in a discursive context or economical context? Do artists produce such work, which 
has a certain economical value or is this whole collective inter-subjectivity based on 
the distributed social surplus value that makes possible of such a format? What is the 
relation between collective art practices between "the existing flows of surplus value"? 7 



5 Plan, A.Vidokle, Social Engagement in Art Projects, Conversation, Muhtelif no. 1, 2006, Tditors: Pelin Tan, Ahmet Ogut, Adnan Yildiz, Istanbul. 

6 I do use the term production not primary as an economical value but as any type of form of art. 

7 In their article (Ceren Ozselcuk&Yahya M.Madra (2005), Psychoanalysis and Marxism: From Capitalist - All To Communist Non-All, 

Psychoanalysis & Society Journal, 1 0, p. 79-97), Ozcelik and Madra define surplus value and its distribution that at the end of their argument they 
question the who and how reclaiming it could be a counter-hegemonic nodal: "Tor us, a relation to class is enacted whenever there is an effect 
stemming from the extent to or the form in which surplus-labor is produced, appropriated, and distributed. Hence, there are continuous attempts 



28 



In trying to construct a local ethics of distribution of social production and building 
a community economy Gibson/Graham asks: "How might non-producers of social 
surplus have a say in how surplus is generated, appropriated, distributed, and those to 
which it will not?" 8 . Before reaching to this guestion, the social surplus value here (in 
this exhibition) has been produced not only as an outcome of production of the art- 
ist who establishes and creates the events, seminars, archive, library based on certain 
discursive statements but also by the contribution of participants, who actually might 
have diverse practices in their own studios. According to this, generally, the model 
needs a "community" in order not only to create the environment, discursive space 
but also the surplus value that is a redundant production in several forms that takes 
place in the a free working art space or such an process based multiple model. The 
value created during the seminars and events also stems from the discursive relation of 
the site, city, institution that contains an open-ended risk. I will come soon to Gibson- 
Graham's guestion, but before I would like to dig more on the 'value' guestion. In try- 
ing to analyse the time-based labour and value compared with Marxian view and the 
changing art production/object; Diedrich Diederichsen is pointing out that: "Artworks 
and art projects are capable of articulating content and enabling aesthetics experi- 
ence independently of their commodity form" 9 . As the artwork -beside its commodity 
value- is able to relate itself to other situations, conditions, knowledge, artworks and 
create other layers of relation, thus distribution is leading to social relation. I will relate 
to Diederichsen's explanation of an "index 10 " where he asserts that the art object is no 
longer a physical but a metaphysical index: "It is a symbol within the social relation: 
in the differential production of its meaning and status in relation to other works. Its 
value, however, is determined in connection with its aura, and therefore indexically" 11 . 

to institute class relations at sites as diverse as households, universities, neighbourhoods, highways, and unions, as well as within translational 
corporations. Similarly, class relations are shaped by a variety of discourses (gender, political, legal, religious, ecological, as well as economic) that 
interrupt and re-channel the existing flows of surplus-labor or attend the production of gualitatively new ones. In turn, relations to class processes 
sustain certain political identifications and cultural claims at the expense of others, which are restricted from or completely deprived of accessing the 
flows of surplus labor. .." p.82, Ozcelik/Madra. Further: "...In the absence of a counter hegemonic nodal point, these disparate "acts of reclaiming" 
could indeed easily be co-opted by the capitalist-all. We believe that the axiom ofcommunism could serve as a useful counter-hegemonic nodal point 
that would impart a "surplus" meaning to each and every act of reclaiming . . .".p.94 

8 J.K.Gibson-Graham (2006), Postcapitalist Politics, the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 

9 Diedrich Diederichsen, On (Surplus) Value in Art, Witte de With Publisher, Sternberg Press, Reflections 1, 2008, Rotterdam, NY, Berlin, p.44. 

1 Indexing: surplus value, the balance power between social classes. 

11 p. 42-43, Ibid. 



29 



From the Marxian perspective, "index" is pointing out the power of relation in ordering 
and defining classes. However in such art projects in which discourses of subjectivities 
emerge and miss-match, the "discursive" practice appears as the collective in creating 
not only a value but also an aesthetics experience independent from its commodity 
value. Gillick tries to explain the link between the communal gathering in creating 
event and the meaning being it as a localized act: "Statements depend on the condi- 
tions from which they emerge, and begin their existence within a field of discourse. 
Statements as events are important within the discursive — they provide a "location" 
from which to propose a physical potential beyond the immediate art context. Putting 
a statement into play will create an event "at some point" — or a series of events pro- 
jected into the near future to recuperate the recent past" 12 ; as he further describes the 
shift between flexibility of working to redundancy that finds its place in the discursive 
cultural space. 13 1 consider Suriye Passage experience as a process based performative 
exhibition that the artists are shifting the positioning of a place of a redundant worker 
(let's say reclaiming the position) or only a place that defy the collective statement, the 
discursive that are developed through working process. As I refer to Gibson/Graham's 
claim 14 that they try to find the ethical place for the distribution of social surplus value; 
the value that is not produced in any specific form but reclaimed even by non-produc- 
ers. How can this help to explain collective places of contemporary art practices that 
pursue discursive engagements through ideological background and supposedly free 
themselves from the institutional structure in order to reclaim the distribution of the 
social surplus that might help to guestion the ethical positioning? Who is creating the 
statement, the discursive in which condition and who is sharing it and appropriating, 
distributing it? 



12 Liam Gillick, Maybe it would be better if we worked in groups of three? Part 1 of 2: The Discursive, E-Flux Journal, http://www.e-flux.com/ 
journal/view/35 

13 For example, "Basso" another artist-run collective space that mainly organized by Yussi (Yusuf Etiman) in Berlin; is based in storage and collective 
budget. Basso produces a network of collective events, magazine/publication and performance. Basso is based on the sub-culture of Berlin and 
avant-gardes tendencies. The artists who are involved in Basso, continue their own practice while contributing Basso with other events, meetings 
and practices. When Basso is invited to a gallery for an exhibition project they temporary inhabit the space and continue their (sort of) non-institu- 
tional practice in gallery space, www.basso-berlin.de 

1 4 Gibson-Graham, p.9: "The social surplus may be used to support those who are currently non-producing (such infants and some very old people) as 
well as helping to build and sustain the material and cultural infrastructure of the social order. It is thus the potential of ethical decisions and political 
contestation." 



30 



In my conversation with the artist Muruvvet Turkyilmaz, the artist was explain- 
ing her hesitation about the established institutional structure, and suggesting the 
transformation of the exhibition space as an ongoing workshop (factory) space. This 
exhibition's structure is based on an ongoing factory space that was supposed to relate 
to its spatial identity of the apartment flat (the exhibition space where it was set up). 
Does the exhibition attempting to structure itself temporarily as an extradisciplinary 
practiced institution open a layer of self-reflexivity? Or we may ask other way around; is 
this structure a self-reflexive act itself? It is sure it has a constructive investigation that 
Holmes 15 calls which has a notion of standards of resistance. But what are the stan- 
dards in this case, considering the reality of the site and the overwhelmed useless Istan- 
bul's art institutions and agencies? Nowadays, in most art projects and exhibitions we 
are experiencing that not every extradisciplinary practice relate to radical politics. In 
my opinion, this exhibition project might lead us to new guestions about the standards 
and the borders of autonomy by keeping in mind that a radical act needs a certainly 
defined autonomous body. As Buden 16 inserts well when he refers to Agamben that "we 
are not able to experience our times as a crisis. . ." which I think that this project is partly a 
subject of an act of criticism. The only missing thing is: we need more crises. 



15 Brian Holmes, Extradisciplinary Investigations. Towards a New Critique of Institutions, http://eipcp.net/transversal/0W6/holmes/en, and In 
this book. 

1 6 "This is typical for today's situation: neither are we able to experience our time as crisis nor do we try to become subjects through an act of criticism. 
In the time of classical modernism, crisis was always experienced as an actual possibility of a break and criticism as this break itself Joday we are 
obviously not able to make such an experience any more. There is no experience whatsoever of an interaction between crisis and critique. One cannot 
simply ignore the warning of Giorgio Agamben -that one of the most important experiences of our times is the fact that we are notable to make any 
experience of it. The result is a permanent criticism, which is blind for the crisis, and a permanent crisis, which is deaf for the criticism, in short - a perfect 
harmony!" Boris Buden, Criticism without Crisis: Crisis without Criticism, http://eipcp.net/transversayo 1 06/buden/en, and in this book. 



31 



Bibliography 

Boris Buden, Criticism without Crisis: Crisis without Criticism, http://elpcp. 

net/transversal/01 06/buden/en, and in this book. 

Diedrich Diederichsen, On (Surplus} Value in Art, Wine de With Publisher, 

Sternberg Press, Reflections 1, Rotterdam, NY, Berlin, 2008 

J.K.Gibson-Graham, Postcapitalist Politics, The University of Minnesota, 

Minneapolis, 2006. 

Ham Gillick, Maybe it would be better if we worked in groups of three? 

Part 1 of 2: The Discursive, E-Flux Journal, http://www.e-flux.com/journal/ 

view/35 



Brian Holmes, Extradisciplinary Investigations. Towards a New Critique 

of Institutions, http://eipcp.net/transversal/0106/hoimes/en, and in this 

book. 

Ceren Ozselcuk&Yahya M.Madra, Psychoanalysis and Marxism: From 

Capitalist - All To Communist Non-All, Psychoanalysis & Society Journal, 

10,2005. 

Plan, A.Vldokle, Social Engagement in art projects, conversation, Muhtellf, 

no. 1, 2006, editors: Pelln Tan, Ahmet Ogut, Adnan Yildiz, Istanbul, 2006. 



I 









«d 







v 






\ 






6tWC>i*ct**nn\zs 












Ml 



ALINTILAR 
EXCERPT 

ASHKAN SEPAHVAND 



Kulturel Ozgurluk Kongresi 8 Mayis 2009'da 13. oturumunu yeni atanmis 
Uzlastirma Mercii Ybneticisi F. Zahir Ivlibineh'in yaptigi acilis konusmasiyla 
baslatti. Mibineh'in yaptigi konusma uzlastirmanin gerektiligi, kissel vekillik, 
cehalet, merhamet, ihtiyac fozlasi ve birikim basta olmak uzere cesitli konular 
iceriyordu. Konusmayi tabiri calzse geleneklere provokatlfblcimde karsi 
cikan bir tavirla yaklasilan tutarsiz malzemelere ait istisnai bir dilsel "harita" 
olarak ilgi cekici buldum. "Yeni Bir Deglslmcllige Dogru" baslikli konusmanin 
metninden ahntilar asagidadir: 

Biliyorum ki burada toplananlan biiyiik miicadeleler 
bekliyor: Gelecek belli belirsiz, 90k yakinda, cok hizh. Uzun 
yillar, "Biiyiik Degisim" adini verdigimiz harekete siipheyle 
yaklastim ve hatta gecmiste ona karsi cahstim. Bugiin hala, 
uygulaniyor oldugu haliyle inamyor degilim, ancak temel 
degerlerini benimsemis durumdayim: Diizenleme, birlesme, 
ideolojik konumlama, savascihk ve avangard. Bugiin 
burada "Yeni bir Degisimcilik'ten soz edecegim, bu degisim 
simdiden, benim de farkinda olmadan parcasi oldugum 
ve en nihayet sanatin giindelik hayatla olan iliskisinin 
karmasikhgi sayesinde miimkiin olan etrafimizdaki tiirn 



The Congress for Cultural Freedom commenced its 13th session in Berlin, 
Germany on May 8th, 2009 with a keynote address by the newly appointed 
Director of the Agency for Mediation, F. Zahir Mibineh. The material in his 
lecture covered a range of topics, notably the necessity for mediation, subjective 
agency, non-knowledge, pathos, surplus and accumulation. I found the lecture 
interesting as an exceptional linguistic "map", so to speak, of discursive material 
approached in a provocatively iconoclastic manner. Excerpted transcripts of his 
address, entitled "Towards a New Transitionism", follow: 



I know that amongst those gathered here, we have great 
challenges at stake - the future looms before us, having 
come so near, so fast. For many years, I was skeptical of the 
movement we know as the "Great Transition" and I, in the 
past, have even worked against it. I still, to this day, do not 
believe in it as-it-has-been-practiced, but I do adhere to 
its core values: regulation, unity, ideological positioning, 
militancy, the avant-garde. I am here to speak of a "New 
Transitionism", one which is already taking place on all 
levels of art and culture around us, one in which I have, 
unconsciously, been a part of and one that, ultimately, is 



35 



sanat ve kiiltiir diizeylerinde gerceklesmeye basladi. Bugiin, 
ucagi hep beraber havalandirmah ve Yeni Degisimcilige 
dogru ses hizinda ucmahyiz. 

Bircok meslektasimin aksine, Degisim'in politikadan 
annmis bir sanattan ya da politik giidiilerle baslamis ancak 
sonunda tamamen sanatsal kaygilar tasryan bir sanattan 
olustuguna inanmiyorum. Sanat politiktir ve ancak boyle 
olabilir. 

Bence "Politik" olamn ne anlama geldigi konusunda 
bir kafa karisikhgi mevcut. Politik bir sanat politikayla 
ilgilenen sanat degildir, en azindan ulus-devletlerin yonetimi 
ve birbirleriyle olan iliskileri diizeyinde. Medyamn cikis 
noktasi islevini gorecek ya da yalmzca goriis ve muhalefeti 
kaydedip sunacak bir sanat degildir. Dahasi, yalmzca 
"elestirel" de olamaz. Aynca hedefi de devrim degildir. 
Politik sanat hayatin yasanmasi icin bir alandir. Gelecegin 
sanatidir, onun icinde yasamaya ve oliim aracihgiyla yasama 
son vermeye dair biitiin deneyimler insanoglunun kolektif 
sanatsal eylemi olarak algilamr. Sirf bu nedenle hepimiz birer 
sanatciyiz. Oliim ammiz dahil hayatimizin turn anlanm -ve 
onun otesinde yatanlan- bizim de katkida bulundugumuz 
kolektif bir sanat eserinin bir parcasi olarak goriirsek. 
Politik bir sanat yasamla onu diizenleyerek, kimi dahil edip 
etmeyecegine karar vererek iliski kurar; yasam siireclerini 
idare etmekle ilgilidir, savasi siirdiirebilir, oldiirebilir. Politik 
bir sanat tehlikeli bicimde oldiiriicudiir ya da bu potansiyele 
sahiptir. Kendi etki alani ile "gerceklik" hissi yaratan sey 
arasindaki simrdan cekinmemeli; oliim, aci cekme ve 
trajediye de gecmis ya da gelecekteki uzak anlarmis gibi, 
baska yerlermis gibi, cahsma, diisiinme, temsil ya da yorum 
nesneleriymis gibi de yaklasmamahdir. Politik bir sanat 
yazi yazmaz, eyleme gecer. Eyleme gecer, kimi zaman kor 



possible through the complexity of art's relationship to 
everyday life. Today, we must board the plane together and 
fly at the speed of sound towards a New Tranisitionism. 

Unlike many of my colleagues, I do not believe that the 
Transition is composed of an art that is de-politicized or an 
art that commences with political motives but in the end 
remains purely artistic in its concerns. Art is and can only be 
political. 

I believe there is a sense of confusion as to what the 
"political" actually means. A political art is not one interested 
in politics, at least on the level of the administration of and 
interaction between nation-states. It is not an art that acts 
as an outlet of the media or one that simply registers and 
represents opinion and dissent. Furthermore, it cannot solely 
be "critical". Revolution is also not its goal. A political art 
is a space for the living of life. It is the art of the future, in 
which the total experience of living and ending a life through 
death becomes recognized as the collective artistic activity 
of mankind. For only in this sense are we all artists - if we 
view every moment of our life, including the moment of 
our death - and what lays beyond - as part of a collective 
art work on which we are all collaborating. A political art 
engages with life by regulating it, deciding who it includes 
and excludes; it is concerned with managing life processes, it 
can wage war, it can kill. A political art is dangerously fatal, 
or has the potential to be. It should not shy away from the 
boundary between its own domain and what it senses to 
be "reality", nor should it simply approach death, suffering 
and tragedy as distant moments in the past or the future, as 
elsewheres, as objects of study, meditation, representation 
and/or commentary. A political art does not write; it acts. It 
acts, sometimes blindly, sometimes stupidly and sometimes 



36 




Pelin Tan Arti Deger / Surplus Value 



37 




Pelin Tan Arti Deger I Surplus Value 



38 



bicimde, kimi zaman aptalca ve kimi zaman da bir devlet 
yonetiminin yapacagi bicimde toplumun menfaatleri ugruna: 
Fikir birligi ve muhalefet arasindaki uygulama temelli bir 
gerilim aracihgiyla. Boylece politik bir sanat, sanatin kendisi 
icin baska bir insanin canim alabilir. Bunu cinayet olarak 
gormemek gerekir. Aslinda kurtancidir. Ciinkii insanhgin 
malzemesi boylece kendi varolusundan daha biiyiik bir 
amaca hizmet edebilir. 

[...] 

Burada bulunan bizler icin, soyledigim seylerin cogu Biiyiik 
Degisim'e dair bildiklerimiz acisindan tanidik gelecektir. 
Benden once gelenlerden beni ayiran ve Yeni Degisimcilik'e 
dogru yonelmeye dair vurgumu konumlandirdigim sey son 
derece oznel bir gerekliligi ifade etmemde yatiyor: Turn 
kiiltiirel aktivite alanlarina politik diizenleme uygulamalarmi 
sizdirmak. Paradan, kurumlardan, sirketlerden, devlet 
dairelerinden, biirokrasiden, terorisflerden, suclulardan, 
sizofrenlerden, seri katillerden, ajanlardan ya da en 
onemlisi her sabah uyandigimizda hayatta aldigimiz 
risklerden korkmamarmz gerekiyor. Sanat disinda kalan 
turn aktivite alanlanyla, "sanat" sozciigiinii duyduklannda 
biiyiik bir keyif alan ya da sanati iyiliksever, goriintii 
pazarlayan bir stratejinin parcasi olarak goren alanlarla 
isbirligi yapmahyiz. Sanati donmus, formal tasarim 
nesneleri haline getirerek tarihsellestiren ve ona deger 
bicen kurumlarla bile isbirligi yapmahyiz. Daha biiyiik, 
daha iyi, daha sansasyonel bir sanat talep ettiginde paradan 
da korkmamahyiz. Bilincin her yam korliik ve kararsizlik 
noktalarma yoneltilmisken toplumda goriilmeye deger 
seyleri haber verecek bir alan yoktur. Eylemlerimiz nasil 
algilanacagimizi belirler. Gercek hayattaki eylemlerimizin, 



for the supposed greater good of a community in the same 
way that the administration of a government does: through a 
praxis-based tension between consensus and dissent. In this 
manner, a political art can take the life of another human for 
the sake of art itself. This should not be seen as murderous. 
It is indeed redemptive, for the material of humanity itself 
can thus be used for a greater purpose other than its own 
existence. 



For us here, much of what I say sounds familiar in the 
terms of the Great Transition as we have come to know it. 
Where I differ from my predecessors and where I position 
my emphasis on moving towards a New Transitionism is 
in my articulation of an extremely subjective necessity: 
to infiltrate all spheres of cultural activity with the praxis 
of political regulation. We must not be afraid of money, 
institutions, corporations, government agencies, bureaucracy, 
terrorists, criminals, schizophrenics, serial killers, spies, 
or, most importantly, the risk we place our lives in every 
morning when we wake up. We must collaborate with all 
fields of activity outside of art, fields which maintain a 
certain amusement whenever they hear the word "art", or 
who view art as part of a philanthropic, image-marketing 
strategy. We must even collaborate with institutions that 
historicize and valorize art into frozen, formal objects of 
contemplation. Nor should we be afraid of money when it 
demands bigger, better, more sensational art. There is no 
room in a society to denounce spectacle when every inch 
of consciousness has been spectacularized to the point of 
blindness and ambivalence. Our actions will determine how 
we are perceived. We must not step outside of the way we 



39 



dusiincelerimizin, konusmalanmizin, ruyalanmizin, 
korkulanmizin ve yaptiklanmizin disina cikmamamiz 
gerekir. Sanat bir soyutlastirma degildir; oznelligimizi ve 
etrafimizdaki diinyaya dair nesnel algilanmizi olusturan 
her seyin yogunlastinlmasidir. Bu anlamda, kendimizi 
sanatla donatabilir, vucutlanmizi satabilir, sevdiklerimizi 
sakatlayabilir, sahte evraklar diizenleyebilir, mantikdisimn 
diyarma giris yapabilir, ajanlara, miiltecilere, gocmen 
iscilere, call-center cahsanlarma, para aklayicilara, 
olmayan yerlerde varolan anonim kisilere doniisebiliriz: 
Sermayenin carpik mantiginin, politikamn ikiyuzlii bicimde 
insan haklari uzerinde durusunun, sahipsiz topraklarm 
kanalizasyonlarimn, gecekondu mahallelerinin, korsan 
gemilerinin, ayirma bariyerlerinin ve niikleer silah saklama 
tesislerinin kor noktalarmda. 



Kurtulus, devrim ya da selamet istemiyoruz. Yikim, kaos ve 
felaket talep ediyoruz. 

Amtlari yok ederek onlarin anitlarim yaratmak istiyoruz. 
Niikleer silahlan hezeyan dolu akil hastalarma vermek ve 
sebep olacaklan hasari gormek istiyoruz. 

Kredi kayitlanni yok etmek ve diinya ekonomisini biiyiik 
bir kansikliga siiruklemek istiyoruz. Paramn degerini hicbir 
degeri kalmayincaya kadar yiikseltmek istiyoruz. Dunyayi 
sarsmak ve gokyiiziinii bombalamak istiyoruz, tayfunlarm 
diinya baskentlerini asit yagmurlanyla harap etmesini 
umuyoruz. 

Oncelikli felaket iiretiminin para birimini sagladigi 
ve bu birimin "sanat" olarak bilindigi yeni bir ekonomi 
hayal ediyoruz. Yeni Degisim bizden gozlerimizi 
kapatmamizi ve kormiis gibi davranmamizi, diinyaya hayal 



act, think, talk, dream, fear and do in real life. Art is not 
an abstraction; it is an intensification of everything that 
comprises our subjectivity and our material sensation of the 
world around us. In this sense, we can arm ourselves with 
art, sell our bodies, mutilate our loved ones, forge our papers, 
enter the realm of non-logic, transform into agents, refugees, 
migrant laborers, call center employees, money launderers, 
incorporate identities that exist in non-places: the blind 
spots of global capital's skewed logic, of politics' hypocritical 
insistence on human rights, the no-man's land of sewers, 
shanty towns, pirate ships, separation barriers and nuclear 
weapons storage facilities. 

We are not asking for redemption, revolution, salvation. We 
are demanding destruction, chaos, catastrophe. 

We want to create memorials to memorials by destroying 
all of them. We want to give nuclear weapons to raving 
lunatics and wait and see what havoc they will cause. 

We want to destroy credit records and plunge the world 
economy into massive confusion. We want to inflate money 
until it is worthless. We want to salt the earth and bomb the 
sky, hoping that hurricanes will destroy world capitals with 
acid rain. 

We imagine a new economy, one in which pre-emptive 
disaster-production provides currency and this currency is 
known as "art". The New Transition demands that we close 
our eyes and pretend that we are blind, approaching the 
world through our imagination, allowing for our dreams 
to merge with our sensations, our fantasies with our 
perversions, our inner visions with the action of our hands in 
and on the world. 



40 



guciimiizle yaklasmamizi; hayallerimizin duygulanmizla, 
fantazilerimizin sapkinhklanmizla, icgoriilerimizin 
elimizdeki ve diinya iizerindeki eylemlerle bhiesmesine izin 
vermemizi ister. 

Meslektaslarim, biz artik gercegin pesinde degiliz, bir 
aciklama da istemiyoruz: Boylesi bir caba zamanimizin 
istirabi olmustur. Bunun yerine, oliim ve ciiriimenin yegane 
gercegi aracihgiyla gercekligin amsim kutlamak ve bu 
anlayisin diinya iizerindeki uygulamasi aracihgiyla yolumuzu 
cizmek istiyoruz. Soyledigim seyde mesihsel bir soylem 
yoktur: Diinyayi gelecegin sanatiyla doldurmak ardindan 
bans ve refah dolu bir donemin gelecegini ifade etmez, 
nihai tiranlik bir kez tamamlandiginda Kurtanci'nin Yeni 
Babil'i kurmak iizere gelecegini iimit etmez. Gelecegin sanati 
diinyamn yikilmasinin ardindan kendimizi baska bir yerde 
bulmamizin pesindedir: Uzerinde yasadigimiz diinyaya 
artik ihtiyac duymadigim bir "oteki" diinyada. Bu gercegi 
inkar ettigimizde onu hayal giiciimiiziin cevirdigi dolaplara, 
her kadin ve her erkegin birer sanatci olarak sahip oldugu 
sondan bir onceki araca ifsa eder. 

Insanin hayal giicii derin ve zalimdir: Fakir fabrika 
iscisinden sirket yoneticisine, dokunulmazdan prense 
arzulanmizdan gecerek ceplerimize, ofislerimize, 
tatillerimize, ucak yolculuklarimiza, TV oniinde gecirdigimiz 
zamanlara sizar. Gelecegin sanati simdi ve buradadir, 
icimizde, ruhlanmizdadir; gozlerimizi son kez kapatip 
parlak bir beyaz lsigi, oliim amnda beynin yaydigi endorfinin 
yarattigi kivilcimlan gordiigiimiizde oradadir. 



[...] 



Turkge (^eviri: Duygu Dolek 



Colleagues, we are not seeking a truth anymore, nor do 
we want an explanation; such an effort has been the suffering 
of our times. Instead, we want to memorialize truth through 
the single reality of death and decay and work our way to 
this understanding through its implementation in the world. 
There is no Messianic discourse in what I say - filling the 
world with an art of the future does not imply that afterwards 
a period of peace and prosperity will flourish, nor does it 
hope that once ultimate tyranny has been fulfilled that then 
the Savior will return to establish a New Babylon. The art of 
the future seeks the earth's destruction so that we may find 
ourselves elsewhere - in an "other" world that no longer 
needs this current one in which we live. Once we deny this 
reality, we expose it to the machinations of our imagination, 
the penultimate tool that every man and woman has as an 
artist. 

The human imagination runs deep and bloody - it seeps 
through our pockets, our offices, our vacations, our plane 
rides, our time in front of the TV, through the will of the 
lowly factory worker to the corporate executive, from the 
untouchable to the prince. An art of the future is here and 
now, in ourselves, in our souls, visible when we finally close 
our eyes for the last time and see a shining white light, sparks 
set off by endorphins released in the brain at the moment of 
one's death." 




Pelin Tan Arti Deger I Surplus Value 



43 



Inci Furni 

wha wha 




BIR QALGl PARC^ASI 
OLARAKBEDEN 
BODY AS A PIECE 
OF INSTRUMENT 



ULUS ATAYURT 



20. yiizyilin ikinci ceyreginden itibaren siyaset felsefesinde 
bir "bedene geri doniis" egilimi ortaya <;ikti. Bu biraz da, 
daha yapisalci sol fikriyatin care olmadigi ya da olamayacagi 
kanaatinden kaynaklamyordu: Bir tiir en saf savunma hattina 
ve en basite geri donelim cabasrydi. "Beden siyaseti'nin cok 
kabaca hedefi - mesela feminist kuram ve eylemde cokca 
zikredilen "queer" fikri gibi - bedeni sarmalayan ve onu 
uysal hale getiren, "sagaltan" bir dizi iktidar pratiklerinin be- 
den adina yadsinmasi; bedenin ozgiirlestirilmesiydi. Bedene 
hiikmeden, onu disipline sokan iktidar mekanizmalan aym 
zamanda, onun potansiyelini isgiicii olarak da kirahyor. Yani 
bildigimiz "emek giiciiniin kiralanmasi" ve "beden siyaseti" 
arasinda aslinda biiyiik bir tezat yok. Zaten kiralama isini 
hemen hepimiz yapiyoruz. 

Bu bedeni (ya da onun emek potansiyelini) kiralama 
isi niteliksel ve niceliksel olarak epey farklihk gosterebilir. 
Ornegin Suriye pasajinda 19. yiizyilda faaliyet gosteren 
matbaamn bir calisam ve pasaj gelecekte kuwetle muhtemel 



civardaki bircok tarihi yapi gibi butik otel/ahsveris merkezi 
olduktan sonra orada cahsacak komi icerik acisindan farkli 
islerle mesgul olacaklar. Ancak ikisi de arzu dolu bedenlerini 
bir siireligine uysal islevlere devsirecekler. 

Bendenlerimizin kompleks yapisi, yasayan ve dciniistii- 
rebilen ve dolayisiyla iktidarin tahakkiim yontemlerine gore 
farkli sekillerde islevsellestirilebilen ozellikleri aslinda Istan- 
bul ya da "diinya kenti" olma iddiasindaki diger kentlerin son 
yillarda gecirdikleri hem soylemsel hem de pratik domisiim- 
lerden de anlasilabiliyor. Hizmet sektorleri sanayinin yerini 
alip sanayi daha ucuz iscilerin diyarma ucarken; garsonlarm, 
memurelerin, call-center cahsanlarimn, tasarimcilann sayisi 
19. yiizyilin tekstil iscilerini gececek mi diye beklenirken; 
yeni nesil - ornegin - Kagithane'deki tersanelerde iscilik 
yapan anne ve babalarindan baska bedensel iklimlerde 
cahsryorlar. 

Kabaca "proleterya (emegini satan)"dan "prekarya 
(giivende olmayan)"ya gecis diye adlandinlan ancak tiim 



hayati sarmalayan bir degisim bu. Elio Petri'nin fabrikadaki 
makineye seksi bir objeymis gibi arzusunu kusan iscisinden 
(Isci Sinifi Cennete Gider), Hans Weingartner'in lokantadaki 
mesaisi sonrasi Mercedes marka arabalan cizen garsonuna 
(Yagh Yillar Geride Kaldi) giden bir siirec. Tabii ki bu, her 
cografyada aym sekilde bir dosiimiin oldugunu soylemiyor. 
Cin'in giineydogusunda proleterya devam ediyor. Ancak 
$angay'da prekaryamn - ortaya cikti cikah - sayisi giderek 
artiyor. Beden ve onun "kira pratikleri" de hizla degisiyor. 
Ancak bunun bir istisnasi olmasa da anomalisi diyebilecegi- 
miz bazi meslekler de mevcut. Bunlardan biri de miizisyen- 
lik, ozelinde de miizik icra eden enstriimantalistler. 

Evliya Celebi Seyahatnamesfnde Suriye Pasaji'na yakin 
Galata bolgesindeki iki yiiz kadar haraphanede, yani meyha- 
nede, insanlarm "isret edip hanende ve sazendegah ile hay 
ii huy ettigini" anlatiyor. Yani yiizlerce miizisyen Galata'da 
efkar dagitan binlerce insana miizik yapiyor. 1 7. yiizyildan bu 
yana onlarca meslek yaratici yikim vesilesiyle geride kalirken 
aradan gecen 350 sene icinde ise Istanbul'da halen ucuz emek 
olarak miizisyenlik devam ediyor. Hatta "kiiresel kent" gol- 
gesinde kentsel soylem bir tiir tarih-kultiir-turizme tekabiil 
etmeye baslayip, tarihi kent merkezini "temizleme" amach 
yikimlardan Sulukule gibi miizisyen mahalleleri nasibini 
ahrken, sizoit bir edayla Roman miizigi tiiketim kodlannda 
basat bir konum elde ediyor. Raki reklamlarmda, dizilerde 
arz-i endam edebiliyor. 17. yiizyilda sarhos gemicilerin mey- 
haneleri ile Nevizade dekoru arasinda elbette epey bir fark 
var. Ancak miizisyenin bedeni ve calgisryla kurdugu iliski 
arasindaki fark o kadar biiyiik degil. 

Son 30 senede gezegen niifusu icindeki gelir dagihmda 
giderek artan adaletsizlik kiiltiir endiistrisi cahsanlan icin de 
gecerli. Kapital merkezi metropollerde cahsanlarin %2-3'iine 



denk gelen kiiltiir endiistrisi cahsanlarimn biiyiik boliimii 
piramidin altina dolasirken yukandaki birkac star (star- 
oyuncu, star-miizisyen, hatta starkitekt, vs.) kiiresel-simfsal 
paylasimin tablosunu bir turnosol gibi Tiirkiye'ye uyguluyor. 
Bu "kiiltiir isciligi" arasinda klasik "amale'lige yakin, yogun- 
emek mesailerinden biri de kayit stiidyosu calgicihgi: Cesitli 
muhteviyattaki starlann arkasinda calarak parca basi iicret 
alan kemanci, akordeoncu, udi, vb. Aslinda beden ile bunca 
zamandir kurdugu bagi gorece koruyan ve bedeni sanki 
kullandigi "makinenin bir parcasi'ymiscasina hissetiren 
nadir mesleklerden biri miizisyenlik. Inci Furni'nin birkac 
aletten devsirilmis, aksami mekanik, ama aym zamanda 
ozofagus borusuna, baska organlara da benzeyen dokularla 
bezenmis "insan-enstriimam" yiizyillardir sermaye biriktikce 
bedenlerimiz iizerinde artan iktidardan azade olmayan ama 
degisime dogasi geregi kendi mesreplerinde katilan calgicila- 
rin, nota skalamizda olmayan bir sesi, "x "notasim" cikarmak 
i^in kullandiklan bir alete benziyor. 



46 



Starting with the second quarter of the 20th century, a move- 
ment of "returning to the body" appeared in the philosophy 
of politics. This somehow grew out of the belief that the 
leftist structuralist ideas did not or could not help: it was 
kind of an effort to return to the purest and simplest line of 
defence. The aim of "body politics" was roughly -as the idea 
of "queer" largely mentioned in feminist theory and action - 
to reject a series of practices of power that wraps, tames, and 
"treats" the body; to liberalize the body. The power mecha- 
nism that dominates and disciplines the body also hire its 
potential as labor force. In other words, there isn't a big con- 
tradiction between "hiring labor force" and "body politics". 
We all do the hiring anyway. 

The hiring of the body (or its work potential) may differ 
in quality and quantity. For instance the worker of a printing 
house operating in Suriye Passage during 19th century, and 
the bellboy who would work there after the passage most 
probably turns into a hotel/shopping arcade like most of the 
historical buildings in the neighbourhood will be kept busy 
doing different kind of works. However they both will have 
to recruit their lustful bodies to tame works for a while. 

The complex structure of our bodies; their characteristics 
that are living, transformable and thus able to be functional- 
ized in different ways according to the ways of domination 
of the power can actually be seen in the recent transforms 
of discourse and practices that Istanbul or other cities that 
claim to be a "world city" had. As services sector replaced in- 
dustry and industry flew to the land of cheaper workers; as it 
is expected to see if the number of waiters, clerks, call-center 
workers, and designers will exceed the number of textile 
workers of the 19th century; the new generation is work- 
ing in different physical climates than -for example- their 



parents that worked in the shipyards in Kagithane. 

This change can roughly be called as a transformation 
from "proletariat" (selling labor) to "precariat" (not safe) but 
it is actually a change that enfolds the whole life. It is process 
that goes from Elio Petri's workman who brings up his lust 
towards a factory machine as if it ia a sexy object (Proletariat 
Goes to Heaven) to Hans Weingartner's waiter who scratches 
Mercedes cars after his shift in the restaurant (The Greasy 
Years are Over). Of course, this transformation has not oc- 
cured the same way everywhere. The proletariat proceeds in 
the southeast China. However, the precariat in Shanghai in- 
creases in number -since the day it appeared. The body and 
its "hiring practices" are changing rapidly as well. But still, 
there are also jobs that can be considered as an anomaly, not 
an exception. Ancak bunun bir istisnasi olmasa da anomalisi 
diyebilecegimiz bazi meslekler de mevcut. On of them is be- 
ing a musician, especially being an instrument performer. 

In his Book of Travels, Evliya Celebi tells that in the Gal- 
ata region close to the Suriye Passage, people used to drink 
and enjoy the singers and musicians in around two hundred 
taverns. That is, hundreds of musicians used to play music 
for thousands of people cheering themselves in Galata. Since 
the 17th century many jobs had been lost due to creative 
destruction while in 350 years being a musician is stil valid as 
cheap labor in Istanbul. Moreover, as the urban discourse in 
the shadow of "global city" starts to correspond to some kind 
of history-culture-tourism and musician neighbourhoods 
such as Sulukule get their share of the destructions that aim 
to "cleanse" the historical city center, in a schizoid manner 
the Roman music gains a dominant position in the consump- 
tion codes. Of course, there are many differences between the 
taverns of drunken sailors in 17th century and the setting of 



Nevizade. However there is no big difference in the relation- 
ship between the musician's body and instrument. 

The injustice in the income distribution of the world 
population during the last 30 year also affects the workers 
of the culture industry. The culture industry workers who 
constitute around 2-3 % of the metropoles that are the center 
of the capital mostly stays below the pyramid while a few 
stars (star-actor, star-musician, or even starchitect, etc.) on 
the top apply the global-class share charts to Turkey just like 
turnsole. Among those "culture workers" one of the most 
hard-labor workers that work close to being a "workman" 
are the instrumentalist that work in recording studios: the 
musicians playing behind several stars getting paid per piece 
while they play the violin, accordion, lute, etc. In fact being 
a musician is one the rare jobs that maintains its bond with 
the body and makes the body feel as if it is a "piece of the 
machine" it uses. Inci's "human-instrument" that combines 
several tools with mechanical components and also looks like 
the esophagus tube and other organs is like an instrument 
that the musicians who are not freed from the power that 
increases as the capital accumulates but are also joining the 
change naturally in their own spirit use to play a sound that 
is not on our note scale, the "x note". 



Tranlated by Duygu Dolek 



48 49 



GAYRi MADDi EMEK 
UZERINE NOTLAR: 

BURAKARIKAN -DENlZGUL 



Deniz GUI: Her sey bundan birkag ay once cok sikilmamla basladi. Imajlara bakiyorum, insanlann islerine bakiyorum, film seyrediyorum, 
sergilere gidiyorum. Peki, neyapiyoruz biz? Boylesine uretim bollugu ve tikanikligi igerisinde, belki kendimizi tekrar ederek, ne yapiyoruz? Sanat 
elestirisinin olmamasi, kimsenin yaptiklanmizi yazmiyor olmasi, kendi kendimizi yazar veyaptiklanmizi olumlar hale gelmemiz... Sikintimiz 
nedir? Bunu tartismaya acalim, gorunur kilalim. Birbirimizi terbiye edelim, yaptiklanmizi ortaya gikaralim ve buniar uzerine tartisalim. Bu ko- 
nulara deginen blog yazilanmm uzerine Borga Kanturk'un daveti, bugun BurakAnkan'la gayri maddi emek konusunda konusmamiza zemin 
hazirladi. Bu konusmanin baglammi sunlar olusturuyor; sanat uretimi, sanat urunu, sanat sistemi, sanat ekonomisi, sanat servisi... Daralan 
alan, gorsel uretimi, gosteri uretimi, yepyeni bir gercekiik uretimi, kopyalama, yapistirma ve dagilim. Burak, sistem uzerine galisan bir sanatci; 
uzun yillardir internet, ag ve teknolojiyi kullanan isler yapiyor. Bu bir sanatgi sunumu degil, dolayisiyla konusmamn, sizin sorulannizla, 
yorumlannizla birlikteyurumesini istiyoruz. Konusma boyunca sanatsal uretimle gayri maddi emegin iliskisine ve bu iliskinin nasi! evrildigine 
yogunlasacagiz. Klasik tammiyla "maddi olmayan emek'le baslayalim. 

Burak Ankan: Bir suredir maddi olmayan emegi kaynak olarak kullanip bunun uzerine galisiyorum. Gayri maddi emekya da manevi emek 
dedigimiz seyin ne oldugu ve kultGrel (iretimdeki yeri uzerine konusmadan once bunun tanimini agmaya galisacagim. Gayri maddi emek, 
basitge, "Maddi olmayan haliyle emek" demek. "Kol gucu olarak emek" kavramindan goktan aynldik. Servis ekonomisinde yasiyoruz, bugunku 
isgiler ister bankada ister fabrikada olsun, harcadiklan emegin sonucu olarak bilgi uretiyorlar. Bu tarz uretimin degeri herzaman hesaplana- 
biliyor; birisine danismalik yapmissam ya da bir bankada, restoranda servis veriyorsam karsiligmda para aliyorum. Antonio Negri ve Michael 
Hardt'in "Empire/lmparatorluk" kitabinda servis olarak yapilan her ise, gayri maddi emek deniyor. Maurizio Lazzarato'nun yazdigi metinde ise 
gayri maddi emek ikiye aynliyor: Bir tanesi is saatleri iginde servis ureten emek, digeri de is disinda, yolda yijrurken, alisveris yaparken, sosyal 
hayatm igerisinde yapilan uretimin emegi. Bunun pratik bir ornegi su: Markali ayakkabi giymisim, arkadasim bunu gordugu igin o markayi 
satin aliyor. Ben burada ayakkabiyi tavsiye etmis oluyorum, bilingliya da bilingsiz. Yasarken bir deger uretiyorum, o deger de ayakkabi fir- 



50 



masinin kendisine gidiyor. Bu tanim yuz kusur yillik bir tanim; Marx'tan basliyor bugune kadar geliyor. Felsefe ve politik ekonomi alanlannda 
derinlemesine tartisilmis bir konu. 

DG: Klasik anlamda maddesiz uretime referans veren emekten ve kulturel igerigi ureten etkinlik bakimindan, normalde is olarak kabul edilme- 
yen bir dizi etkinlikten bahsediyoruz. Diger bir deyisle, kulturel ve sanatsal standartlan, modayi, zevkleri, tuketici normlanni ve stratejik olarak 
kamuoyunu belirlemeye, kurmaya yonelik etkinliklerden bahsediyoruz. Nicin sanatsal uretimi gayri maddi emekle iliskilendiriyoruz? 
BA: Sanatginin is yaptigi ve yapmadigi zaman ayn olabilir ama cizgiyi cekmek o kadar da kolay degil. Hatta sanatginin hayatinin, uretimin 
kendisi oldugu uzerine tartismalaryurutulur. ("Life as art / hayat olarak sanat" meselesi) Bunun iginde manevi olan ve maddi olan arasmdaki 
belirsizlik soz konusu. Neresinde maddi, neresinde manevi oluyor, neresinde karsiliginda para aliyor, neresinde almiyor? Bunlar son derece 
belirsiz. Sorun bu belirsizlikte, ic ice gecmislikte, karmasiklikta ortaya cikmaya basliyor. Gecen gun Elmas ornek vermisti: Istanbul Bienali'ne 
katilmis bir sanatci Istanbul'da dolasiyor, gok az parasi var - belki gok az hararah almis - zarzor geciniyor. Ama kendi sanat eseri Zurih'ten 
Istanbul'a 1 0.000 dolar tutannda bir sigortayla geliyor. Bu ucurumun sebebi nedir? Bu paranin icinde hangi pay sahipleri saklaniyor? Bienal 
sistemi ne tur bir karmasa ki sanatginin hargligi He eserinin degeri arasinda boyle bir fark var? 

DG: Herhangi bir kurum 100.000 dolarlik bir fonu yonetirken diyelim ki size proje uretim bedell olarak WOO $ veriyor. Gosterim bedeli olarak 
telif genelde verilmiyor; bu bedel, isminizin degeriyle iliskili olarak degisiyor, belki sadece yatacak yer ve ucak biletleriniz odeniyor. Ortaya 
konan deger girdisinin giktilanni pek bilemiyoruz ya da kultur endustrisinin o degeri nasil kullanacagmi ongoremiyoruz. Sanatgi igin bu 
deger belki on sene sonra maddi bir form aliyor, belki iki sene sonra. Bilinmez, kontrolsuz, belirsiz bir ortamdan bahsediyoruz. Oysa bu ortam 
internetle birlikte baskalasmakta. Arti deger ureticisi olarak sanatgi ve iletisimciye bigilen rol, insanlann birebir ureticiyle bulustuklan- hatta o 
ortami urettikleri, yarattiklan, kullandiklan, yeniden yarattiklan ve yeniden kullandiklan - baska bir dongunun igerisinde artik. Bugune kadar 
uretici, arabulucu ve tuketici uzerinden izlenen herhangi bir endustriyel deger uretimi, internetle birlikte sadece uretici ve tuketici arasinda ger- 
geklesiyor, yani arabulucu "aradan" gikiyor. Burada ekonominin degismesinden bahsediyoruz. Alex Bruns bunu "produsage" olarak anlatiyor: 
Hem uretim hem de kullanim. Ikisinin bir arada olabildigi bir doneme geliyoruz. Igerik, bilgi, anlatim ve deneyim yaratimi, birikim gibi kumu- 
latif-goklu ortamda, goklu kullaniciyla gergeklesen- gelismeler var. Bu model! kultur endiistrisine uygulayalim. Burak'in yaptigi islerde sbyle bir 
onerisi var: Biz artik gayri maddi emegi olgebilir hale geldik. Nedir bu tarn olarak: Internette ve ekonomideki degisimler sanat uretimini nasil 
etkileyecek ve arti deger yaratan insana ne gibi olanaklar saglayacak? 

BA: Gegmis He gunumuzdeki fark sosyal iliskilerin kaydedilebiliyor olmasidir. Gegmiste yolda yururken, alisveris yaparken, arkadaslanmiz- 
la konusurken, bu fiziksel dunyada olanlar sadece oluyordu. Simdi bunlar sadece olmuyor, ayni zamanda kaydedilebiliyor, tekrar tekrar 
kullanilabilir bilgiler haline geliyor. Ornegin, kafeye gittiniz -Urban'a mesela- bira igiyorsunuz, arkadasimzla konusuyorsunuz, hep ayni tur 
biradan soyluyorsunuz, yoldan gegen bir arkadasiniz yanmiza oturuyor sohbete katiliyor. Butun bunlar yapihyor, bitiyor ve gidiyorsunuz. 
§imdi yaptiginiz islemlerin hepsi kaydedilmis olsun diyelim, su an konustuklanmizin kaydedildigi gibi. Sadece ses olarak degil, turn bilginin 
kaydedildigini dusunun: Ne siparis verdi, hangi saatte verdi, her gelisinde ne kadar igki igiyor, yamna kimler oturdu, katilanlardan kag kisi 
igki siparisi verdi, ne konusuldu. . . Bu bilgilerin hepsinin kafe isletmecisi tarafindan biriktirildigini dusunun. Butun gittiginizyerlerde sosyal 
iliskilerinizin kaydedilip biriktirildigini dusunun. Iste sosyal web'de olan bu. Yaptigimiz her hareket: Arama sonuglannin hangisine tikladigimiz, 
attigimiz e-mail, Facebook'ta katildiginiz "event'ler, arkadasini begenme, etiketleme, fotografyukleme. . . Bunlann hepsi kaydediliyor. Hepsi 
sosyal etkinlik, arkadaslar arasinda olan, iliskiler uzerinden yuruyen seyler. Guy Debord'un gosteri toplumu dedigini dijital olarak yasiyoruz. 
Yani kaydedilebilir ve analiz edilebilir versiyonunu yasiyoruz. Bu iliskiler kaydediliyor, analiz edilebiliyor, uzerinden yen! degerler gikanlabiliyor. 
Benim sorum su: Ortaya gikan degerlerin sahibi kim, kim kullaniyor bunlari? Su anki haline bakarsaniz kullananlar platform sahibi dedigimiz 
Facebook, Youtube, Flickr sitelerinin sahipleri. Ornegin Facebook'un kullania haklari sozlesmesinde ilk defa kaydolurken imzaladigimiz met- 
nin igerisinde su yaziyor: Burada urettiginiz fotograf, bilgi, butun dijital igerik Facebook'a aittir, Facebook bunu uguncu partilerle paylasabilir. 



51 



Doha da ilging bir durum var aslinda, bu kaydetme meselesi sadece Facebook igin degil, bankalar icin de gegerli. Kredi karti harcamalanni 
dusunun mesela: Harcamalannizin yeri, ne kadar oldugu, harcama yaparken bankanizdaki hesap miktari... Bunlann hepsi biliniyor. Bankalar 
arasinda, bankalann iliskide oldugu 3. partilerle, pazarlama sirketleriyle paylasilan bilgiler... Benyaptigim islerle bunlann altmi gizip ortaya 
gikarmak, bunlari daha belirgin hale getirmek istiyorum. Bunu bilen biliyor, bilmeyen gok insan varya da bilse deyeterince onemsemeyen. 
Gayri maddi emegi elde tutamazsak, dijital olarak kaydedilen seylerin sahibi biz olamazsak higbir zaman da bunun hesabmi soramayiz diye 
dusunuyorum. Simdi biraz bilgisayann igine girelim. Delicious kullanan var mi aramzda? Bir sosyal bookmark sitesi. Sahibine 2005 yilindaki 
bir rbportajda "Nasil bir is planiniz var" diye soruyorlar. Gunku herkes bedava kullaniyor bu sistemi. da diyor ki: "Kullananlar bize bilgiyle 
odeme yapiyor." Mesela ilging bir siteyi "bookmark" ladiginiz zaman, ona etiket yapistinyorsunuz, tarif edebiliyorsunuz. Soyledigi gok net: 
insanlar bize yarattiklan bilgilerle odeme yapiyor. ilk bakista mantikli geliyor kulaga evet bedava kullaniyorum karsiliginda da reklam goste- 
riliyor. Burada onemli olan soru su: Ne kadar odeme yaptigmiz? Ne aldim, neverdim soz konusu. Bu her zaman belirsiz. Mesela Facebook'un 
kurucusu 2007'deki rbportajinda soyle bir sey soylemis: "Facebook reklam destekli bir servistir, o yiizden bedava." Felevizyon ve dergiler de oyle: 
l/15'i reklam. Felevizyon sirketleri 1 5-20 yillik sirketler, oysa Facebook gibi bir sirket sadece 4-5 yillik ve ederi Furkiye ekonomisinin i/4'i kadar 
neredeyse. Bu, bu kadar hizli nasil olabiliyor, bu kapital nasil birikti? Soru ne kadar kapital biriktigi degil nasil bu kadar hizli biriktigi. 
DG: Fakip edebilme, tarif edebilme, yaratilan degerin gun begun izlenmesi buradan hareketle bize "My Pocket" projesinden bahsedebilir 
misin? 

BA: Dedigim gibi Facebook'ta olan biten ayni sekilde, daha da fiziksel bir sekilde bankalar igin de gegerli. "My Pocket/Gebim" projesi bununla 
ilgili: Bankada biriken harcamalanmi bir programla kendi bilgisayanma indirdim ve orada isledim, analiz ettim. Bir banka analistinin yapa- 
bilecegi gibi. Feknik bir bilgi, sonugta teknikbirislem. Son ug yil igerisinde yaptigim harcamalanma baktim ve tahminler yapmaya basladim. 
Program, gegmisteki bilgilere gore, her gun bir sonraki gun ne alacagimi tahmin etmeye galisiyor. 

DG: Copyright'a girmek gerekir mi bilmiyorum ama birlikte uretme o kadar yaygm; ortakzeka, kolektifzeka o kadar baskm ki bugun. Ornegin, 
Burakbir programi bir copyright elde edip tek basma kullanamiyor: Bin tane program kullanman gerekiyor ve o dayetmiyor. 
BA: Benim uretim teknigimin iginde boyle bir sey soz konusu: Baskalarmin urettigi kiiguk kuguk pargalan bir araya getiriyorum. Son derece 
soyutlastigi igin bir butunmus gibi gozuken isler yapiyorum. 

DG: Bana kalirsa urettigin bilgi uzerindeki hakkin bir sekilde eriyor o potada ve o hesabi tutabilir halden gikiyor. 

Orton Akinci: Ne zaman konu oraya gelecek diye dCisunuyordum: Para lafi ilk kez konusulmaya baslandi. Gopyright'in tanimi entelektuel 
mulkiyet degil mi zaten? Gunku kapitalizm denen sey nesne uzerine kurulu. Entelektuel mulkiyet uretimleriyle nesne ortadan kalktigi zaman 
copyright bunun tek savunucusu ya da tek karsiligini verecek sey olarak ortaya gikmisti. Bir taraftan da uretimde en onemli girdinin bilgi 
olmasi uzerinden ekonomik sistem degisiyor. Dolayisiyla ortada nesne dedigimiz sey kalmiyor. Bunlann hepsinin gikisi kapitalizm elestirisi 
aslinda. Kapitalizmin en onemli dusmani da bu nesnesizlesme. Gunku kapitalizm her seyi nesne uzerinden kurabiliyor. Kredi kartinm paranin 
yerini almasi , paranin da nesneden kopuyor olmasi, bir taraftan butun dunyanin nesnesizlesmeye dogru gidiyor olmasi -muzik CD'lerinin 
yerini mp3'lerin, kitaplann yerini e-book'lann, DVD videolann yerini xvid'lerin almasi- kapitalizmin karsismdaki en buyukdusman. Kapitalizm 
igin bunlann somutlastinlmasmin tek yolu ise copyright yasalan. Bu noktada gok onemli kavramlardan birisi de copyleft. Bugunku haliyle 
copyright zaten bu ekonominin, kapitalizmin urettigi bir sey: Sanatginin uretimini devam ettirmesi igin ona verilenler mi? Ama tarn tersi, ozel- 
likle kultur endustrisinin isin igine kansmasiyla beraber copyright, aslinda sanatgiyi da gegip kultur endustrisinin kaynagi haline dbnusmeye 
baslayan, arti deger ortaya gikaran bir sey oldu. Gok guzel bir kavram var: Free software. "Free" ne demek? iki anlamivar. Bir seye "free" dedigin 
zaman, mesela bu program "free" dedigin zaman internette bu gogu kisi igin "bedava" anlamma geliyor. Ama onlann soylemi su: "Free as in 
speech, not as in beer". Yani '"bedava'dan degil, 'ozgurluk'ten bahsediyorum" diyor. Birseyin bedava ya da parali olmasi onun bzgijr olmasi ya 
da ozgiir olmamasiyla gok da alakali degil. Sonugta biz para mi istiyoruz yaptigimiz seyin karsismda? Carlos Basualdo "Worthless (Invaluab- 



52 



le)" adinda Ljubljana'da bir sergi yapti. Sergi sunu soruyor: Iki tone sanatgi var. Birtanesinin atolyesinde resimleri var, bunlar bes para etmez. 
Obur taraftan muzede bir resim var, paha bigilemez. ikisini degerli/degersiz yapan onun degisim degeriyle ne kadar alakali? Ya da sanatgi 
ne kadarmi istiyor? Aradaki kiiltur endiistrisi ne kadar gerekli? Eskiden gogaltim ve dagitim uzerine kurulu olan kultur endustrisi kulturel ure- 
timlerin kitlelere ulasmasi igin belki de gerekliydi. Oysa bugun in ternette -web siteierinden de bahsetmiyorum- "Peer to peer" (P2P) gibi bir sey 
varken ve sanatgi kendi uretimini direkt kendisi uzerinden paylasabilecek durumdayken boyle bir araci gerekli mi? Kiiltur endiistrisi ortadan 
kalktiktan sonra, biz gayri rnaddi emek dedigimiz seyin karsiliginda ne istiyoruz? 

DG: Konulardan bir tanesi de uriiniin aslinda erimeye dogru gidisati. Internetle birlikte her zaman bir suregten ve tamamlanmamis bir seyden 
bahsediyoruz aslinda. Orton, sen de (irunsiizliikten bahsediyorsun, kapitalizmin gittigi nokta olarak. Oysa sanatin uriin odakli olrnasi, bu 
kurumlar uzerinden galismasim kolaylastinyor ve urunii gecerli kilnyor. 

BA: Orun daimi bir sey, ilelebet de olacak gibi geliyor bona. Onun ne oldugu, rnaddi mi degil mi o ayri bir konu ya da sistem bir surec mi? 
OA: Sistemi kurtarmak igin bazi olanaklar var. Konuyu dagitmak istemiyorum ama suna gelmek istiyorum: Am deger elde ediliyor, bunun 
buyiik kismim da kiiltur endiistrisi aliyor, sanatciya gok az bir kismi diisuyor. Biz ne istiyoruz; burada ortaya cikan parayi sanatgmm kendisinin 
almasi igin? Sanat iiretiminde armagan denen sey miimkiin mu? Armagan kavramini - Marcel Mauss'u da referans alarak- sunun igin 
kullaniyorum: Paylasmayi, iyi niyeti ve toplumu birbirine baglayan seyin bunlann uzerinden gittigi bir diinyanm mumkiinlugune olanak 
sunacagini dusuniiyorum. 

DG: Bence sanatgi paradan gok, soz hakki istiyor. Ozellikle kendi iiretimi iizerinde. Birgok insanin gok bikkin oldugu bir sey, benim de gordii- 
gum, islerin tikandigi nokta: Bir seyler yapiyor ama neyaptiginin, islerin nereye vardigmm farkinda degil. Kurumlar etrafinda dolastigi igin 
kendi isinin iizerinde soz sahibi de olamiyor. 

OA: Copyleft denen sey burada gok onemli. Bir seye copyleft dediginiz zaman -Creative Commons'in bazi lisanlanndan farkli olarak bilgiyi 
kullanan birisi onu kapatamaz, dagitima agabilir. Isin bir kismi ulasilir bir kismi ulasilmaz oldugu zaman oradan bir arti deger uretilebiliyor. 
Burak'm yaptigi projede oldugu gibi, eger herkes butun yaptigi harcamalan internette agarsa, o zaman bunlan kimse muster! aliskanliklan 
bilgisi olarak pazarlayamayacak hale geliyor. Cunku bilgi zaten ortada. Suraya gelmek istiyorum: Sanatgi eger yapitini copyleft'leyerek 
sunarsa, o is uzerinden iiretilen her is o sanatgiya referans verecek zaten. Dolayisiyla kimse senin isin uzerinden bir arti deger elde edemeye- 
cek. Problem gdziilmiistiir. .. Bunun web sitesi uzerinden dagitihyor olmasi da gok buyiik problem. Ag ekonomilerinde soyle bir sey var: Agin 
degeri oradaki kullanicilann degeri olgiisiinde, hatta ondan daha fazla artiyor. Aga giren bir insan agin degerini kendi tekil degerinden daha 
fazla artinyor. Oysa P2P merkezliligi ortadan kaldinyor. Anders Weberg'in bir projesi var, "P2P Art." Yapitini PIP uzerinden paylasima agiyor 
ve bir kisi indirdikten sonra kendi bilgisayanndan siliyor. Sadece P2P iizerinde var oluyor, aslinda yapit heryerde var oluyor, ama higbiryerde 
var olmuyor. Ta ki en son kisi kendi bilgisayanndaki paylasim klasorunden bunu silinceye kadar bu yapit dolasimda kalmis oluyor. Bu neyin 
gostergesi? Eger insanlar o yapiti istiyorlarsa, is asla yok olmayacaktir ve isin degeri de degisim degeri uzerinden degil de kullanim degeri 
uzerinden oliusacaktir. 

BA: P2P bir network'iin iizerinde bir medium paylasabilirsin ama bir sistemi nasil paylasabilirsin? Bu miimkiin degil. Mesela "My Pocket" 
projesini diisunelim. Bu bir sistem, gok pargali bir sistem. Kredi karti makinesi, banka karti, yazdigim program, bankanin kendisi, arkasinda 
galisan bir sistem de var isin iginde. Ben bunu nasil dagitayim? imkansiz benim igin. P2P sistemle dagitamam. Creative Commons avukatla- 
nndan Lawrence Lessig konusmalannda videolan copy right' lamaktan, dagitilabilir seylerden bahsediyor. Ama dagitilamayan gok sey var. 
Ozellikle fiziksel diinyayi diisiiniirsen de dagitilamayacak seyler soz konusu. Bir sistemse ya da performanssa dagitamayiz. Dokumantasyon- 
dan bahsetmiyorum, kendisini nasil dagitacaksin? Bu bence agilip gelistirilebilecek bir soru. 

OA: internet diger alanlarda sundugu devrimi burada sunmuyor diyebilirsin. Uzerine dusunmek lazim. Ben P2P'yi sadece bir organizasyon 
mantigi olarak soyledim. Client-server modeli disinda. Bu ozgun ve gergek degeri ortaya gikarabilecek bir sistem. Belki sistem olarak uyarlaya- 



53 

bilirsin ya da uyarlayamazsin. 

Elmas Deniz: Burada para hep nereye gidecek dedigin zaman ben, bunun iizerinde kontrol istiyorum. Neyi, nereye, nasil bedava ya da parali 

vermek istedigimi kontrol etmek istiyorum. 

OA: Deger kultur endiistrisinin igerisinde belirlenen bir sey Kultiir endiistrisi bunu yapar iste: Top Ten listeleri. "Bunlan dinle, digerleriyle vakit 

harcama." Mesela Youtube'a iinlii bir yonetmenin koydugu video ise bir adim onden basliyor. Ama bir sure sonra kitlenin yarattigi deger, onun 

degerini paradan bagimsiz olarak ortaya gikarabiliyor 

DG: Bu deger sence demokratik bir sekilde mi ortaya gikiyor? Internette esitlikgi demokrasiden bahsediyoruz. Sonug olarak en gok reytingi 

alan sanatgmm isi en degerlidir, islerin I en gok paraya o sanatgi satar gibi bir seye gelebilir miyiz? Bence gelemeyiz. 

OA: Eskiden ulasabilirlik problem! vardi. Ama internette boyle degil. Kamusal sanati dusunelim. Heykel yolun ortasinda duruyor, gokgiizel, 

amayolumu uzatiyor. Yamndan dolasmak gerekiyor. Onun orada istenip istenmediginin kesin bir kaniti yok. Oysa P2P modelinde - bunu bir 

metafor olarak soyluyorum - o insanin bilgisayannda bir dosya tutma istegi oldugu surece bu bir sekilde - paradan da bagimsiz olarak - 

degeri! hale geliyor. 

DG: Peki sanatgiyla ticaret adami arasindaki farka gelelim. isi kendine siparis eden sensin. Bir de bunun uzerinden para kazandigini diisun. 

Tamam, sen bir isadamisin bir noktada, degil misin? Sonata deger bigen butun kurumlardan da kurtulduk. Yuksek sanat-asagi sanat kavram- 

larimn ulasilabilirlik sayesinde birbirine yaklastigini diisunelim. Bugun populer kultiiru hedefleyen sanatgilarla muzeleri hedefieyen sanatgilar 

arasindaki farkm asildigim gormuyor muyuz? Yuce bir sanat urunu yerine goklu ortamda sanat sistemleriyle iliskiye girecek objeler, enstalas- 

yonlar, imajlar iireten "produser-artist'lerden; kiiltur alisverisi yapan seyyah sanatgilardan sonra, simdi yen! toplumsal utopyayi gergekles- 

tirmeye yakin sanat tuccarlan mi tureyecek? 90'lardan beri "sanat" iiretimi yapan sirketler zaten soz konusu. Bagimsizlik bu mudur? Elmasin 

verdigi bir ornek vardi. Sanatgi ornegini verir misin ? 

ED: Bu gok enteresan. Belki de olayin ozu orada... Bir ekonomi kitabmda soyle gegiyor: En gok kar edebileceginizyatinm araglanndan ilki 

sanat eseri, ikincisi miilk, iigiinciisu altin. Boyle gidiyor. Ayni kitabin iginde toplumsal meslek dallan ve bunlann ekonomik degerleri de 

siralanmis. En ust sinif banka yoneticileriya da sektoryaraticilan. Asagiya iniyor: Memurlar. Asagi iniyorsun, son sik su: Oziirliiler, sanatgilar. 

Sanatgmm oliimu varya, kitleler adina konusan sanatgi olarak "auteur"iin dliimii. Sanatgiyi olduriiyorsun, sonra da kendi adina konusama- 

yan kisi oluyorlar. Sanatgilar, ozurlulerden sonra gelen sinif olarak aslinda, kendi urettikleri degerlerin bir o kadar farkinda olmayan kisiler. 

DG: Dogal olarak sistem seni oyle biryere konumlandmyor ki edilgenlesiyorsun, uysallasiyorsun. Gayri rnaddi emegin maddesellesmesiyle 

varmak istedigimiz noktalardan biri de, bu direncin goriiniir hale gelmesi ve bir seyler yapabilme durumu. Soyle bir direng de gelisebilir: Sen 

kendi iizerinde hak iddia edersen yani, ben deger iiretiyorum; ben bu degerin sahibiyim, onun uzerinde haklanm var seklinde kendini ortaya 

koyarsan, belki de degisim baslayacak. Sonugta ortaligin toz duman olacagi bir donemdeyiz. Bir siirii degisik, yaratia meslek gruplannin, 

iletisimcilerin, sanatgilann, isadamlannm aktivitelerinin gitgide birbirine yaklastigi; kavramlann yavas yavas eridigi, iliskilerin -toplumsal, 

politik, ekonomik olarak - yeniden tanimlandigi bir donemde... 

Cumartesi, Nisan 25, 2009 
Suriye Pasaji, Istanbul 



Konusmanin genis versiyonuna http://oddat.blogspot.com/search/label/gayri%20mciddi%20emek adresi Uzerinden ulasilabilir. 



v,< 




ARPA, 1969 




ARPA, 1971 



55 




INTERNET, 1987 




- ^ - 




INTERNET, 1998 



56 57 



NOTES ON 
IMMATERIAL LABOUR 

BURAKARIKAN - DENlZ GUL 



Deniz GUI: It all began a few months ago with me getting sick and tired of the images, works, movies, exhibitions I was watching... So, what 
are we doing? In such a crisis of over- production, while probably repeating ourselves, what are we doing? The never existing art criticism- 
that nobody's writing about what we do, we becoming writers and narrating once again of the things we do... We should open the process 
of making art to debate, make it visible. Let us educate us, expose what we are doing and discuss them. Borga Kanturk who watched my blog 
entries on such issues, invited me and I invited Burak Ankan to speak up these issues. Our context is on art production, art product, art system, 
art economy, art service and immaterial labour in a general sense. How do copy pasting, distribution of art, and the reality that is shaped 
around this visual world affects our understanding of the artistic production? Burak Ankan is an artist who is working on systems, and he 
uses the Internet to be of his sources as he collects data. This is not an artist presentation, thus we would like this conversation to move on 
with your questions and comments. Throughout the conversation, we're going to focus on the relationship between artistic production and 
immaterial labour and how this relationship evolves. Let's start with the classic expression "immaterial labour". 
Burak Ankan: In my work I've been focusing on the contemporary concepts of immaterial labour for some time. First, I'll try to explain 
what do I understand from immaterial labour, then it's position in cultural production. Immaterial labour is, in a nutshell, "labour that is not 
material". Maurizio Lazzarato puts it as "the labour that produces the informational and cultural content of the commodity." We are long past 
the concept of "manual labour", which is the labour of the "factory worker" as a typical example. We're living in a service economy; workers 
today, from restaurants to banks, produce information consequent to their labour. In their book "Empire" Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt 
name everything that is done in service industry as immaterial labour. However, Lazzarato divides immaterial labour into two types: I) the 
informational work done during official work hours, 2) the kinds of activities involved in defining and fixing cultural and artistic standards, 
fashions, tastes, consumer norms, and, more strategically, public opinion --the product of the labour in the midst of social life. For example, 
I may have Nike shoes on, and show them to a friend, who may then buy a pair of his own. By recommending my shoes, I generate value for 






the Nike Company, for free. 

DG: We're talking about a series of events that are not considered as labour, but are referring to immaterial products and events that produce 
cultural content. In other words, the labour that defines and shapes the cultural and artistic standards, fashion, tastes, consumer norms and 
public opinion. Here is the question we've been discussing for days: Why are we relating artistic production to immaterial labour? 
BA: The time for work and leisure is not clearly divided in an artist's life. Moreover, the idea of "life as art" is being discussed since the Fluxus. 
So if life is the [art] product, what is it worth? There's a natural ambiguity in the division of the material and immaterial of an artist's work. 
Elmas Deniz gave an example a recently: An artist participating in the Istanbul Biennial gets a small fee, however his artwork is brought from 
Zurich with a huge insurance. Which shareholders hide in this sum? What sort of tumult is this Biennial system that the gap between an 
artist's allowance and price of his work are so far apart? We need to look more closely at the role of the artist within art economies. 
DG: Let's assume that a sponsor company spares around $100,000 for an exhibition and gives you $ 1.000 for production. Artist fees are not 
usually paid - it might depend on who you are. You might be provided with a residence and flight tickets perhaps. Do we know in any sense 
how the budget is distributed or how the artist benefits from the value that he creates? Not really. The value of production might be materiali- 
zing in 1 years for the artist; or maybe never. We're talking about an unknown, uncontrolled environment. Briefly we are going to discuss this 
uncertain environment, which is being altered with the Internet, today. The role that is bestowed upon the artist or the mediator has changed 
with the Internet economy, where things have started to happen in different production cycles. People themselves create the environment 
today, they use it and re-create to re-use it. The value that was produced in between the producer, the mediator and the consumer is today 
realized between the producer and the consumer where the mediator "falls off". Alex Bruns calls this "produsage", where the production and 
consumption happen at the same time-space, where things co-exist. Today, the content, the information, the expression and the experience 
accumulates in multi-layered environments with a lot of users. The question is: How does today's culture industry adjust to the Internet eco- 
nomy? Burak has a proposition: We can measure the immaterial labour and this can change things. How will the Internet evolve and affect 
the art production? What possibilities will it provide to the artist? 

BA: In The Society of Spectacle (1967) Guy Debord says, "The spectacle is not a collection of images, but a social relation among people, 
mediated by images." Today, the spectacle is digitally measurable. In the past, what happened in the social life was confined to the physical 
world only. Now, what happens is that it can be recorded so that the information that can be re-used over and over again. For instance, you 
go to a cafe- take Urban Cafe in Beyoglu- you drink some beer, chat with your friends. You always order the same type of beer. A friend pas- 
sing by tags along and joins the conversation etc. Normally when things are over, you go home. Now let's say that all you did was recorded. 
Who ordered what, when and how many does s/he order in every visit, what was spoken there... Imagine all this data is recorded and stored 
by the proprietor. That's exactly what happens in the digital social web. Every move you make, e-mails you send, events you join in Facebo- 
ok, likings, tags, photos, videos, chats... We are living in the digital counterpart of what Guy Debord called the society of spectacle, that is, a 
recordable and analyzable version. Who is the owner of these nascent values? Who are using them? In the current situation, it's the owners 
of these platforms, that is Facebook, Youtube, Flickr, Twitter etc. For instance, when you sign upon Facebook for the first time, the agreement 
says Facebook owns all photographs, information and all digital content you post, it may share it with third parties. Think about your credit 
card expenses; the location of your expenses, their amounts, your account status during the transaction... Again all your actions are recor- 
dable. Amongst banks, third parties involved with them, information shared with marketing companies... With my works, I emphasize this 
situation to make it more visible. Now, let's talk about computer mediated social life again. Anybody using Delicious? It's a social bookmark 
site. In 2005, its owner was asked; "What is your business plan?" He replies: "Users pay us with information." What he says is quite clear: People 
pay us with information they create. Upon first glance, it makes sense. You use it for free and in return you view advertising. The important 
question here is this: How much do you put in the system, and how much do you get as a result? It's an issue of the balance, what is given and 



59 



what is received, which us always vague. The founder of Facebook, in an interview, said in 2007: "Facebook is a commercial-supported service, 
therefore it's free." It's the television / magazine business model. But Facebook is a 4-5 years-old company, with a value of 15 billion dollars. 
Think about it, how can capital accumulate in such a speed today? 

DG: Watching the growth of value day by day and being able to calculate it... Why don't you tell us about your "My Pocket" project? 
BA: Like I said, what happens on Facebook, happens in banks as well. "My Pocket" is a custom software that predicts what I am going to buy 
everyday. To make the prediction, the algorithm uses 3 years of bank transactions from my Bank of America account. It runs periodically 
everyday and openly publishes the actual spendings and the predictions as an RSS feed on the web, so that it can be viewed elsewhere, from 
mobile phones to social activity streams. 

DG: I don't know if we should go into the copyright issues; co-production and collective mind is so common today. That is, you have to use 
ten software programs and even that's not enough. 

BA: In software production one uses libraries made by other people. Abstracted in such a micro scale that it doesn't reveal itself. But in the 
code you always find references to other people's work. 

DG: In my opinion, the information you produce melts in that pot somehow and it no longer remains accountable. 
Orton Akinci: I was wondering when the conversation would come to this. It's the first time that the money is being spoken about. Isn't 
intellectual property the definition of copyright, after all? Capitalism is founded on the object, the material. When you get rid of it, copyright 
is revealed as the last defender and the last reciprocate of intellectual property. Apart from that, the economy evolves due to the fact that 
information is becoming the most vital input for production. In fact, criticism of capitalism is the starting point. Lack of the object, the mate- 
rial, is capitalism's antagonist because capitalism can build anything through the object. Credit card as money is the detachment of money 
from the object. Everything is detaching from object: music as mp3, film as xvid, literature as e-books... This "dematerialization of the world" 
is the enemy for capitalism. However the only material return capitalism requires is possible by copyright laws. Copyleft is another important 
concept. Copyright, as it is today, is a product of this economy, of capitalism: Is it really the things given to the artist to resume his production? 
On the contrary, with the involvement of the culture industry, it became something that produces a surplus, transcending the artist and beco- 
ming the source of the culture industry. There is really a nice concept: "Free software". What does "free" mean ? It has two meanings for many: 
When you call something, say, software free, it means for many that it doesn't cost anything. But the statement is different. It's "Free as in 
speech, not as in beer." Thus we're not talking about money; we're talking about freedom. Something's being costless or not has not much to 
do with its being free or not. At the end of the day, do we want to charge for what we do? Carlos Basualdo curated an exhibition "Worthless: 
Invaluable" in Ljubljana. The show asks: "There are two artists; one has a painting in his studio which is worthless. The other has a painting in 
a museum and it's priceless. How related is what makes them valuable/invaluable with their exchange value? How much of it does the artist 
want? How necessary is the mediating culture industry? Maybe in the old times, the culture industry that deals with reproduction (multipli- 
cation, i will call in fact) and distribution was vital for the cultural productions to reach the masses. However, today while there is something 
called "Peer to peer" (P2P) I'm not referring to websites- and while the artist can share/distribute his own work through his own self, what do 
we want in return for what we call immaterial labour when the culture industry is gone? 

DG: Another topic is the product's course that leads to eventual melting. With the Internet, we're actually talking about "a constant process" 
and something incomplete. Orton, you were mentioning the lack of product as the capitalism's ultimate state. However, art still is product- 
centric because it is the most valid form to work in such a system. 

OA: I don't want to go off-topic but I want to make a point. A surplus value is obtained. Culture industry gets the biggest share and the artist 
is spared a rather small one. What do we want? Do we want for the artist to acquire the money she makes?.... Is "gift" possible in art? I'm using 
"gift" for a reason. Metaphorically, since the work of Marcel Mauss being shown as reference, something happened to demonstrate that the 



60 



possibility of another world's possibility: the fact that what bound sharing, good will and society went through these. 
DG: In my opinion, the artist wants autonomy rather than money, especially over his own production. What bores a lot of people is the point 
where things get stuck. Things are done, but he's not aware of what's being done or where things are headed. Due to wandering around 
institutions, he can't have a right to speak up for his work either. 

OA: Copyleft is crucial thing here. When you copyleft something -differing from some licenses of Creative Commons- somebody using the in- 
formation cannot shut it down and it can be opened to distribution. If some part of the work is accessible while other parts are not, a surplus 
value can be produced out of it. If people exposed their expenses online like Burak did, then they become unavailable for marketing strategies. 
Because the information is already there... The point I'm trying to make is: If the artist presents his work "copyleff'ed, every work that's done 
over that work will be referenced to the artist. Problem solved... Its distribution over a website is another big problem. There's something with 
network economies. The network's value is equivalent to more of those who use it and exceeds them. However P2P eliminates centricity. 
Anders Weberg has a project called "P2P Art". He shares his artwork over P2P and deletes it from his computer after somebody downloads it. 
It's only P2P thus the work exists everywhere, also nowhere until the last person deletes from his/her sharing folder. What does this show? If 
people want the piece, it'll never be trash and the value of the work will be determined not by its exchange value but by its use value. 
BA: You can share a medium on P2P networks, but how can you share a system? Think about the "My Pocket" project... That's a multiparty 
system: the credit card swipe machine, bank card, my software, my database, the bank database, the financial cloud. . . How can you distribu- 
te this? Creative Commons lawyer Lawrence Lessing mentions copyrighting videos and all that distributable media. Is the artwork a picture, a 
video anymore? How can you distribute a system as art? 

OA: You may say that the Internet isn't providing the revolution it enabled on other fields. It has be thought through. I mentioned P2P only as 
a form of logic for getting organized, differing from Client-Server model. This is a system that can reveal a distinct and true value. Maybe you 
can adjust it as a system, maybe you can not... 

Elmas Deniz: When you mention where the money will go, I want control upon it. I want to control what I give, to whom I give it, how to give 
it free of charge or with a price... 

OA: Value is something that is defined within the culture industry. That's what culture industry does: Top Ten lists. You should listen to these, 
do not waste your time with others, we have chosen for you. A video uploaded on Youtube by a renowned director may have a head start. But 
after a while, the value created by the masses can reveal it's worth independent of money. 

DG: Do you think that this value emerges democratically? We're talking about egalitarian democracy on the Internet. Ultimately, can we say 
that the artwork of the artist with the most rating is the most valuable; that it'll sell for the highest amount? I think we can't. 
OA: There used to bean accessibility problem. But it's not the case on the Internet. Let's think about public art. A sculpture is there in the 
middle of the road. It might be pretty but it is lengthening my path. I have to walk around it. There is no discussion on whether if it is wanted 
there. However on P2P model -metaphorically- as long as there's the will of a person to hold a particular file on their computer, there emerges 
a value independent of monetary worth. 

DG: All right, let's get to the difference between an artist and a merchant, then. You commission the work to yourself. Now imagine earning 
money from it. You are a businessman at some point, aren't you? When we got rid of all the institutions appraising art? Let's imagine that 
high art and low art are approaching to one and other. Don't we see that the difference between the artist aiming for the popular culture and 
the artist aiming for the museum is surmounted? Will there be artist merchants on the brink of actualizing a new public Utopia? Will there 
still be multiple spaced art systems which feed on culture industry or traveling artists who trade culture? There are corporations who produce 
and sell "art" since the 90s. Is that independence? There was this example Elmas gave. Would you like to tell us about it? 



61 

ED: This is really interesting. Perhaps it is the essence of the whole thing. It reads in an economics book: The best profit can be obtained first, 
by art, then property and then -for example- gold. So it goes. In the same book, the professions and their economic values were lined up. On 
the top of the list were bankers or sector creators. Below, there were white-collar workers. Down you go and at the bottom of the list you see 
cripples and artists. Here is the artist's death- the death of the auteur, the artist who speaks for the masses. You murder them so that they can 
not speak for themselves. Artists, who are below the line, become those who are unaware of the values they create. 

DG: But some sort of resistance can also manifest. Immaterial labour becomes material in the nearest future. If you claim your right and say, 
"I don't want to be below the line because I am producing value. I possess it and I have right on it." If you stand up for yourself, maybe things 
will change. After all, we are in an period of turmoil where activities of creative profession groups, communicators, artists and businessmen 
approach to one and other; where concept slowly corrodes; where relationships -social, political, economic- are redefined. . . 

Saturday, 25th April 2009 
The Suriye Arcade, Istanbul 



Tranlated by M. Emir Uslu 



Full version of this conservation is available here: http://oddat.blogspot.com/search/label/gayri%20maddi%20emek 



62 



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Kanalkayit / Kanalkayit 



66 



KONiNiN 
10NDEN 

THROUGH 
THE FRUSTUM 

NOVEMBER PAYNTER 



Perspektif ve algiyi degistirebilen siyah beyaz fayanslarla 
doseli zemin, yere rastgele yerlestirilmis siselerden olusan 
bicimsiz bir heykel ve diizensiz kirmizi cicek desenleriyle 
bezenmis viktorya tarzindaki koltuk gibi nesnelerin profilini 
carpici bir bicimde cizerken, aym zamanda onlan iyi bir 
sekilde gizliyor. Zaten odamn kendisi amlarin bir karmasa- 
si, hatta donemlerin ve tarzlann iist iiste yeniden yazildigi 
bir parsomen edasinda. Etraf toz icinde ve harap olmus bir 
halde, merkezde ise kusursuz bir cokmiisliik mevcut. Iste 
tam burada kiiciik ve bulanik bir figiir beliriyor. Mekandaki 
adam, pencerenin acik kalmasi icin koltugun egik meseden 
yapilmis sirtina giivenerek, mekan icerinde dolasiyor. Kapi- 
lann agactan yapilmis olmasi bile, odadaki lsigi parcahyor 
ve figiir, istanbul'un kalabahklasmis apartmanlan arasindan, 
uzaktan Altin Boynuz'un manzarasina bakiyor. Adamin, acik 
pencere ve koltuk arasinda durmasi, hem onu tampon olarak 
kullanmasim saghyor hem de onu mekan icinde gizliyor. 
Bir bakima sehir, adamin sonsuza kadar hapsolmus gibi go- 



The floor is tiled, black and white, a pattern that shifts 
perceptions and changes perspectives. It conceals things well, 
while at the same time dramatically profiling others such as 
the Victorian style armchair upholstered in brash red blooms 
and the awkward sculpture of bottles idly placed on the floor. 
Already the room is a confusion of memories, a palimpsest 
of styles and periods. It is run down and dusty around its 
edges and yet perfectly decadent at its centre. It is from here 
that a small and blurry figure appears. He floats across the 
space and leans over the oak curved back of the armchair 
to break open a shuttered window. As the wooden doors 
are pulled apart light streams into the room and the figure 
looks out across the cluttered apartments of Istanbul to the 
distant view of the Golden Horn. He is cushioned and almost 
concealed between the shutters and behind the chair in a 
way that makes it likely that the city appears more real than 
the shabbily confused room he appears to be forever trapped 
within. So he remains looking out for a while, confirming his 



67 



riindiigii, pejmurde bir diizensizlik icinde varoldugu odadan 
daha gercekci gozukmesini saghyor. Bu yiizden, kendi var- 
hgim dogrulayabilmek icin bir sure durup disariya bakiyor. 
Bu dolasma senaryosu, kolayhkla gecmis zamandan yansiyan 
mesafeli bir bellek olabilir, oysaki yalmzca bir kartonun ya- 
kaladigi ve diizenledigi basit bir cerceve. Bu cerceve, Sabanci 
Universitesi'nden Can Altay ve ogrencilerinden olusan bir 
grup tarafindan hazirlanan Kanalkayit yerlestirmesinin bir 
parcasi. Kanalkayit dik acih bir deligi ucu acik mahrut (koni- 
frustum) sekliyle cevreleyerek, komsu odadaki goriintuyu 
yeniden sahneleyen bir mudahale kurgular. §eklin perspektifi 
uzatan basit yapisi, mekam cevcevelerken onu deforme eder 
ya da belki de sadece yansitir. Ashnda bunu tarif etmek zor 
ciinkii, diger odadaki her seyi yansitan dort parca kartondan 
goriinen sonuc, fiziksel veya psikolojik filtrelerden gecmis 
olabilir. Bu nedenle is, cerceveledigi goriintunun kendisine 
ait oldugunu iddia eder ve boylece komsu odayi soyut olarak 
icine ahr ve siirekli ozellestirir. 

Aym odada Kanalkayit'in dizisini tamamlayan ve kompo- 
zisyonun benzer ifadelerini cerceveleyen baska yapilar da var. 
Penceredeki camda zaten var olan deliklerden disari tasan 
iic konik tiipten olusan seri bunlardan biri. Bir mesafeden 
bakildiginda bu koniler odadaki belirli noktalardaki lsigi 
yiikseltiyor ve yeterince yaklasip periskop gibi kullandigin- 
da her tiipten gordugiimiiz goriintii goz ahci Altin Boynuz 
yerine yan binadaki ruhani bir karakteri gosteriyor. Uc 
koninin birden odaklandigi yerde ise pasif uydu canaklan 
yer ahyor. Uciincii yapi goriintiisii ile birlikte kendini diger 
odaya parazit gibi sokarken, aynah paneller arka ve on tarafin 
ilginc bulusmalarim yansitiyor. Bu odayi merkez oda olarak 
dusiiniirsek disandan merkez odaya baktigimiz oda simdi 
Kanalkayit tarafindan yok edilmis oluyor ve birden ilgimiz 



existence. This floating scenario that could easily be a distant 
memory reflected back through time, but is simply captured 
and composed by nothing more than a cardboard frame. 
The frame is part of the installation Kanal Kayit that was 
put together by a group of students taught by Can Altay at 
Sabanci University. Kanal Kayit is a constructed intervention 
that re-stages a view into an adjacent room by surrounding 
an existing rectangular hole with a hollow frustum structure. 
The shape's simple, elongating perspective, makes the space 
it frames appear distorted, or perhaps reflected. In fact it is 
hard to describe, because the result of nothing more than 
four sheets of cardboard makes whatever is on the other side, 
as if viewed through some kind of filter that could be physi- 
cal or psychological. In this way the work claims the view it 
captures as its own so that the adjacent room is abstractly 
contained and continuously re-appropriated. 

There are other structures in the same room that make up 
the total configuration of Kanal Kayit, and these also capture 
similar expressions of composition. For example a series of 
three conical tubes protrude through already existing holes 
in a glass window. From a distance they amplify precise spots 
of light into the room, yet up close, when used as a type of 
periscope, the edited view down each tube is not that of the 
glittering Golden Horn that transfixes the ethereal character 
next door, but rather a concentrated look upon three circular, 
passive satellite dishes. Along with a third viewing structure 
that pokes itself parasitically into another room and mirrored 
panels that echo these strange encounters back and forth, it 
is as if this one central room, the one from which we look 
out from, is now consumed by Kanal Kayit and suddenly 
attention shifts to try and find what is not an illusion in this 
space. Hence odd details are heightened in the work's midst 



68 



bu mekandaki illiizyonun ne olmadigini bulmaya kayiyor. 
Bu andan itibaren isin ortasindaki garip detaylar artarken 
onlarin gerceklikleri ve alakalari sorgulamyor. Duvardan 
pejmurde, artik tahtalarla aynlan 151k diigmesi, elektrik boru- 
larinin duvarda olusturdugu doku ve simdi kaybolmus radya- 
torii ariyan su borulan bu detaylar arasinda. Radyatorun 
arkasinda kalmis uzamlamayan bir bolgenin boyanmadan 
kalmasiyla olusan dikdortgen bolge aciga cikmis. Son olarak, 
olu§an toz yigimnin oldugu gibi birakilmasi yiiziinden 
heniiz acilmis gibi goziiken yere yakin kiiciik bir delik goze 
carpryor. Bu delik ice cokmiis zeminin, cicekli koltugun ve 
heykelin oldugu ilk odaya baglamyor. Bu yolla Kanalkayit 
mekana miidahale etmekten cok cevresindekilerle birlikte 
anlatarak kendi mekamna hakim oluyor ve kendi algilarmi 
diizenleyerek komsu mekanlan kontrol ediyor. Bir agacin 
insansiz bir ormanda diiserken yaptigi sese benzetecek olur- 
sak Kanalkayit 'in zayif ve gecici miidahalesi mekanda ikamet 
eder iken sanki objeler kendi kendilerine etraflannda olanlan 
onayliyor, en iyi 151k ve insan dokunusuna ayak uydurmak 
icin cevrelerini yeniden diizenliyorlar. Durum bu ise soru 
su olmali: Etrafta deneyimleyecek ve onlara karsilik verecek 
kimse olmasa bile Kanalkayit yeniden hizaya sokmaya, yan- 
sitmaya ve abartmaya devam eder mi? 



and their reality and relevance questioned. These include a 
light switch buffered from the wall by some scruffy scraps of 
wood; the patterns created by the electric pipes on the wall 
and the water pipes that look for the now missing radiator, a 
lack which also reveals the missing rectangle of paint at that 
unreachable zone behind an appliance; and finally a small 
hole near the floor that leaves in its wake a pile of dust as if 
just made. It is this hole that links and peaks into the same 
first room, the room with the figure and the flowery chair 
and the ever receding floor. In this way Kanal Kayit is more 
than a spatial intervention as it commands its own space by 
illuminating its surroundings and controlling the adjacent 
spaces by editing and choreographing their perception. With 
a similar analogy to whether a tree falling in an unpeopled 
forest makes a sound, the flimsy, temporary interventions 
of Kanal Kayit inhabit the space as if the objects themselves 
acknowledge what is going on around them and recompose 
their environment to best suit the light and human activ- 
ity, and if this is the case, the question is if they continue to 
re-align, reflect and amplify even when no one is around to 
experience and respond to them. 



Turkce Cevlrl: Duygu Dolek - Fotmo Ciftg' 



69 




Kanalkayit / Kanalkayit 



Kanalkayit mekansal malzeme vasitastyla tmge uretmek ve gostermek 
gibi temel sorunlan olanyapilardan olu$an biryerle^tirmedir. Yerle$tirildigi 
odanin bigimlendirici i^ievleriyle kurulan yerie^tirmede be$ farkli gdru$ duzeni 
oiu^turulmu^ ve nerdeyse kalici betimlemelerle degil izleyicinin deneyimleriyle 
surekli yeniden uretiien bOWn kom$u mekanlar (kaynaklar) cergevelenmi^tir. 

CanAltay'm Sabanci Universitesi'ndeki simfindan olu$an grup, goruntu 
ve gormenin duzenleri He mekansal iliskileri kurma arasmdaki baglann 
altini gziyor. Kanalkayit: Can Aitay Basak Akcakaya, Emrah Kavlak, Taylan 
Haarustemoglu, Deniz Erdem, Cagn Kucuksayrac, Pelin Gore, Gulsah Taskm, 
SevgiAka, Nesli Yagli, Kaon Birol 



Kanalkayit is an installation that structures basic problems such as image 
production and representation through spacial apparatuses. Building on 
the former function of the room it is placed within, the installation produces 
five regimes of vision and framing where all adjacent spaces (sources) 
are constantly reproduced, not by permanent imagery but through the 
experiences of the viewer. 

The group formed within Can Altay's (visiting artist) class in Sabanci 
University underlines the tie between construction of spatial relations and 
regimes of seeing and imaging. Kanalkayit: Can Altay Basak Akcakaya, Emrah 
Kavlak, Taylan Haarustemoglu, Dentz Erdem, Cagn Kucuksayrac, Pelln Gore, 
Gulsah Taskm, SevgiAka, Nesii Yagii, Kaan Blrol 



70 



Merve $endil 

Underscene Project Fanzin Ar$ivi i 
Underscene Project Fanzine Archive 




"- 1 " iZMiR GONCEL SANAT AR}M 
KAYDA GEQMEYENl TEKRAR DU^UNMEK, 
YENi KAYIT VE TARTI$MA OLANAKLARI 

"-i" Izmir contemporary art archive 

RE-THINKING THE UNRECORDED, NEW 
POSSIBILITIES OF RECORDING AND ARGUMENT 



BORGA KANTURK 



Merhaba, hosgeldiniz. "-1" giincel sanat icin sebeke, bu sergi 
kapsaminda bir gecici ofis kurdu ve etkinlik paralelinde 
hareket edecek kapsamli bir konusma serisi hazirladi. Bu 
programin ilk ayagi "-1" hakkinda; sonrasinda ise giiniin 
ikinci konusmasim Merve Sendil "Underscene Project" iize- 
rine yapacak. Oniimuzdeki hafta da sizleri Deniz Giil-Burak 
Ankan ve Elmas Deniz'in konusmalanyla bulusturacagiz. 

"-1", Izmir bazh cahsan bir network; fiziksel mekam 
olmayan, siirdiiriilebilir bir sanat projesi. Sanatci inisiyatif- 
leri genelde mekan bazh cahsan, mekanlarma isaret eden 
ve hedef bolgeyi cografi reflekslerden alan yapilar olarak 
karsimiza cikmasina karsin, izmir'deki olusumlar hem varhk 
kosullan sebebiyle hem de kendi surduriilebilirlikleri yiiziin- 
den bu inisiyatiflerden ayrihyor. 

Izmir gibi bellek iiretimi eksik olan sehirlerdeki giincel 
sanat iiretimleri ve buralarda yasayan sanatcilarm iiretim- 
leri kayda ahnmamis. Potansiyellerini, goriiniirluklerini 
bir aga baglanabildikleri olciisiinde siirdiirebiliyorlar. Bu 



Hello and welcome. "-1" the network for contemporary art 
established its temporary office for this exhibition and pre- 
pared an extensive series of speeches paralleling this event. 
The first step of this programme is about "-1"; followed by 
Merve Sendil's speech on the "Underscene Project". In the 
following week, we'll introduce you to speeches by Deniz 
Giil-Burak Ankan and Elmas Deniz. 

"-1" is a network based in Izmir; a sustainable art project 
with no physical space. Despite the fact that artist initiatives 
come across as space-bound structures, signifying their 
space and designating their target territory with geographic 
reflexes, manifestations in Izmir distinguish themselves 
due to their existence conditions and their sustainability. In 
cities that lack memory production such as Izmir, contem- 
porary art productions and products are not recorded. They 
can prolong their potential and visibility as long as they're 
connected to a network. Therefore, their involvement to a 
centric history, their traceability exists only as long as they're 



73 



nedenle onlann merkezcil bir tarihceye dahiliyetleri, takip 
edilebilirlikleri ancak uluslararasi sergilere, kitaplara referans 
olabildikleri siirece gerceklesebiliyor. Isin tuhaf yam bagh 
olduklan, iiretim gosterdikleri sehre dair lokal kayitlara 
ulasmak bile zor. Arastirmacilar bu durumda disaridan 
olusturulmus kayitlara basvurmak zorunda kahyor. Iceriye 
disardan bakana, disaridan bir gozlemle tekrar bakmak ve bu 
sekilde iceri donmek. Arastirmacimn yasadigi "mesafe" soru- 
nunu dusiiniin. Buradaki en biiyiik sorun, o kentin sanat iire- 
timinin sergileme ve gosterme alamnda, iiretimden sonraki 
siireclerinde, yasamis oldugu problem. "-1" bu problematik 
iizerine farkli katmanlardan, boliimlenmelerden yararlanarak 
faaliyet gostermeye cahsan bir proje. Network imkam icin 
bir giris kapisi ve sonrasinda ara bulucuk roliimi iistlenmeye 
cahsiyor. Amaci bir mekan esliginde ortaklasa cahsmak, o 
mekana atfen sergiler yapmak, kent icin kendine bir lokasyon 
belirlemek degil. Sehir disi ve sehir ici platformlarda biinyesi- 
ne, agina dahil ettigi cok sayida sanatciyi birbirinden farkh ve 
dogru networklere baglama ugrasi. 

Daha once Izmir bazh, birkac on cahsma gerceklesti- 
ren kurumsal ve ozel girisimler baslatilmis. Ama bazen bu 
bellek olusturma alamnin bir ara siirec olarak ikinci planda 
kalmasi, bazen de inane ve motivasyon kayiplannin yasan- 
masi sonucu "konumlandirma ve bellek iiretimi" konularm- 
da devamhhk saglanamamis. En bilindik ornek: Bir donem 
(2003) sanat merkezi eksikligi ihtiyacindan dogan, sonrasin- 
da (2005-2007) non-profit kimliginin bilincine varip, kendi- 
sinin inisiyatif modeline karsihk geldigini fark ederek gardim 
bu kosullarda alan K2. §imdilerde siirduriilebilirligin cografi 
zorluklan ve insani kosullardan dolayi inisiyatif catisimn 
dagilmasi sonucu, sanat merkezi ornegine tekrar yaklasan bir 
modele dair girisimlerini siirdiirme ugrasinda. 



referenced in international exhibitions or books. Strangely , 
even reaching the records in their city of production is hard. 
In such cases, researchers have to rely on external records. 
Re-observing from the outside that who observes from 
outside and thus turning within. Think about the research- 
ers' problem of "distance". The greatest problem here is the 
locations of display and exhibition in that particular city, in 
the post-production process. "-1" is a project that attempts 
to benefit from various layers and divisions. It's an entrance 
for the possibility of networking and consequently it adopts a 
role of mediation. Cooperation within a mutual space, open- 
ing exhibitions referring to it or designating a location in the 
city is not the goal. It's the effort of connecting numerous 
artists from different platforms in distinct and true networks. 

Previously there have been precursory studies launched 
by various corporate and private enterprises. But due to loss 
of motivation and dedication stemming from the fading of 
this memory-structuring as an interim phase, attempts of 
"localization and memory-production" were discontinued. 
Most popular example: In 2003 K2 which was born out of 
need caused by the lack of centricity in arts. Around 2005- 
2007, it mounted its guard by gaining a conscience of its non- 
profit identity. Consequently it opted that it was more of an 
initiative and acted accordingly. Currently, after the collapse 
of the initiative structure due to the geographic difficulties 
and human conditions of sustainability, K2 is continuing its 
attempts with re-approaching a model which is reminiscent 
to an art centre. 

As seen the offices at the exhibition locations, there are 
two structures involved. One of them is "-1 Network for 
ContemporaryArt, Izmir" which is the primary structure. 
The other is " "-1 Contemporary Art Archive, Izmir": This is 



Sergi mekamndaki ofisi gordiiyseniz eger, iki adet ku- 
rumsal baslik (yapi) soz konusu. Bunlardan birisi "-1 Net- 
work for Contemporary Art, Izmir": Bu ana (jati. Digeri 
ise "-1 Contemporary Art Archive, Izmir": Bu ise benim 
editoryel cahsmasim yaptigim Izmir giincel sanatina dair bir 
bellek-arsiv cahsmasi. Bu cahsma fiziksel mekam olma- 
yan, 1 TB'hk bir harddiskden olusan dijital kaydi depolayan, 
siirdiiriilebilir bir arsivden olusuyor. Kurumsal ayrismasim 
ilk olarak buradan belirliyor. Karsilastiginiz sey bir kurum- 
mekan degil. Dijital tabanli bir veri deposu ve deponun 
iceriginin izleyici tarafindan nasil takip edilebilecegine dair 
klasmanlardan, klasorlerden ibaret. 

Bu haliyle tasinabilir, her yere gotiiriilebilir ve paylasihp 
izin alindigi taktirde kopyalanabilir bir yapiyi barmdiriyor. 
Burada asil hedeflenen sey zaten paylasim. Dogru ve gerek- 
tigi gibi simflandirilmis (Izmir'den -yerelden- uluslararasina 
giincel sanat iiretimi) bellege iliskin verinin akisim ilgililere 
ulasimim saglamak. Bu paylasim biitiin veri de olabilir, ilgi 
alanlarina dair alt klasmanlardan belirgin bir kisima yonelik 
de olabilir. Bu takipcinin taleplerine kalmis bir sey. Bunun 
zemini laptoplar, tasinabilir harddiskler, bloglar, podcast 
canh ya da bant yayinlar ve bu tiir veri izlenimini saglayan 
tasinabilir cihazlar (i-phone, i-touch, v.b.) olabilir. Bu alanlar 
biitiin bu sanatsal bellegin dolasabilecegi, ana zeminle, ahci 
arasindaki iletisimi paylasimi saglayacak "ara-mekanlar" 
olabilir. 

Proje su an icin Izmir merkezli devam etmekte. Ancak 
bu demek olmuyor ki, Izmir icin ozel bir arastirma/payla- 
sim modeli sunuyor. Bu bir pilot uygulama ve yasadigim 
sehre iliskin bir bellek cahsmasina girismem de dogal. Bu 
mantik farkli bolgelere ve sehirlere de uyarlanabilir. Zaten 
acik kaynak bilgisayar yazihmlanmn ve internetin "sanatci 



my personal editorial study about a memory-archive of con- 
temporary art in Izmir. It consists of a 1 Terabyte harddisk 
containing a digital stock and a sustainable archive. It desig- 
nates its first institutive differentiation at this point. It's not 
an actual institutional space that you encounter. It's a digitally 
based database and it contains classifications and folders to 
guide the audience on how to track down the content. 

As such, it harbors a mobile structure that can be shared 
and if permitted, copied. The main goal here is sharing. The 
logistics of a properly classified information related to the 
memory (of the art production from Izmir -the local- to in- 
ternational) This sharing can be of a whole batch or a specific 
subfolder of particular interest. It depends on the inquirer's 
demand. The basis for this can be laptops, external hard- 
disks, blogs, live or footage podcasts and devices that provide 
such media. These spaces can be "mid-spaces" where artistic 
memory can flow between the main source and the receiver, 
establishing a communicative sharing. 

Currently, the project is confined in Izmir. However this 
doesn't mean that we offer a research/sharing model specific 
for Izmir. This is a pilot practice and involving in such an 
endeavor in my own hometown is rather natural. This model 
can be adapted to other regions and cities as well. Infact, the 
possibilities provided by open source software and "art- 
ist networks" on the internet enable this issue to emerge, 
transform and even exist simultaneously. The main goal is to 
sustain the needs of the people who have difficulty entering a 
network.; revealing artists in regions where they're alone and 
try to develop in difficulty. 

"-1 network" stanced to enable the artists in these loca- 
tions to choose their spaces where they share blogsites or 
videologs and create their own "shuttlee-spaces". However, 



75 



network"leri bakimindan sundugu olanaklar da, bu mese- 
lenin farkli yerlerde donusiim gostererek, hatta es zaman- 
li olarak var olmasim saglayabilir. Asil amac, bu uygulamaya 
ihtiyaci olan bolgelerde, oralarm sanatcilan icin gerceklesti- 
rilmesi ve ana akim disansindaki "network'e girme zorlugu 
ceken kisilerin ihtiyaclarim karsilamasi. Ozellikle sanat 
endisturisinin zor gelistigi, sanat ureticilerinin yalmz kaldi- 
gi bolgelerdeki dinamigi gun lsigina cikarmak. 

"-1 network", bu dinamiklerden yoksun bolgelerin 
sanatcilarimn, ozellikle blog sitelerini ya da videologlarim 
paylastiklan alanlar olarak secmeleriyle ve kendi "shuttle- 
space"lerini yaratmak adina bu mecralan kullanmasi ile 
yakindan iliskili bir tutum gostermekte. Ancak bu, nesnel 
iiretim gosteren sanatcilarm "info-desk"lerini yaratabildik- 
leri bir alan olmaktan oteye gidemiyor. Bu sayede bu alanlar, 
ana platformlar olan galeri, miize, sergi mekam gibi fiziksel 
alanlara dahil olmak icin iletisim kurabilecekleri yanip 
sonmekte bir isaret noktasi olmaktan oteye gidemiyorlar. 
Bu sinyalin daha guclu olmasim saglamak icin ne yapilabi- 
lir? Sinyallerin, kiiciik baglanti noktalarimn hepsini lokal 
bir butiinliikte, ortak bir platformda toplamak. Bu sayede 
aranan etiketi ve bashklan kapsayan, isim, mekan ve olaylara 
gore sanatciyi, alternatif arama alanlarmdan eskisinden 
daha kolay bulunacak sekilde bir agin icerisinde konum- 
landirmak. Bir cesit tarihsel-mekansal ya da tiirlere iliskin 
koordinatlari daha genis bir cerceveden belirlemek. Basinda 
da bahsettigim gibi kategorize etmek. "-1" bu noktada belki 
biraz daha onem kazanabilir. 

§imdi size biitiin bu seyin nasil cahsabilecegini aciklamak 
adina ana omurgadan soz edeyim. Bilgisayar isletim sistem- 
lerinin klasor mantigim bilirsiniz. Genel olarak prensip ay- 
mdir: Mac.Windows, Linux, Mobil, hepsinde mantik klasik 



this cannot go any further than creating a space where artists 
with material production establishing their "infodesks". Thus 
this is not beyond being flickering beacon to facilitate entry 
into main display sites like galleries, museums or exhibition 
halls. What can be done to amplify these signals? These sig- 
nals should be congregated into a common platform where 
these beacons are interconnected in a local community. 
Therefore, localizing the artist in a network easier to navigate 
compared to its predecessors by the use of tag and titles, clas- 
sified by name, location and events. In a way, redefining the 
historic-spatial or specific coordinates with a broader frame. 
As I said earlier, to categorize. "-1" can earn more signifi- 
cance at this point. I'd like to tell you about the backbone 
to explain how it all works. You all know the folder system 
of computer processing systems. The principle is the same 
in all: Mac, Windows, Linux, Mobil etc. In the core, they all 
rely on the tree system. The main body is a title, below it, 
there are various branches with different details. This enables 
us to find what we look for with ease and prevents us from 
getting lost along the way. First you open a folder, store the 
information relevant to your research and the space expands. 
As specific details and data emerge, you need more and more 
subfolders. My folder system, which can be called a digital 
tree, consists of one main body with 9 main folders which, in 
turn, contain specified folders with specified data content. 

Izmir Conteporary Art Archive-IGSA 
Main Folders: 

"Artists" 

"Exhibitions 1987-2000" 

"Independent Collectives/Groups/Artist Locations/Individual 

Projects" 



/6 





ga Kantiirk "-1 " Izmir Giincel Sanat ar$ivi 



/s 



lGSA-02Sergiler: 

02A Oncii Sergiler, 

02B Grup Sergiler, 

02C Kisisel sergiler, 

02D Genis Katihmh Sergiler-Etkinlikler, 

02E Kamusal Projeler-Aksiyonlar, 

02F Seriler, 

02G Santiye Sergileri, 

02H K2 Sergileri. 

Bu sekilde 8 alt klasorii kapsamakta. Burada K2 ve $antiye 
adli, Izmir icin onemli olusumlarm sergilerini de ayri kla- 
sorler/bashklar altinda toplamayi uygun gordiim. Ciin- 
kii bunlar, kentteki giincel sanat iiretiminin bellegine iliskin 
bashca referans ve ana duraklari olusturmus iki yapi. Ev- 
rensel network icinde kayda girmis olmalan bu olusumlan 
onemli kiliyor. Diger klasorler ise bu ana kanallari besleyecek 
oteki durum, olay, mekan ya da kisileri iceriyor. Izmir'de 
etkinlikler gerceklestirmis kiiratorler, izmir'deki etkinliklere, 
sanatcilara, durumlara dair, donemsel analizler iceren yazilar 
yazan, roportajlar yapan, kritikler iireten yazarlar gibi. 

Bu noktada kafamza takilan bir seyler varsa cevaplaya- 
yim. 

Onder Ozengi: Bu arsivin ana mekammn bir hardisk 
oldugundan soz ettin. Peki izleyiciler nasil kullanacaklar 
bu "harddisk"i. Karsilasmalari nasil olacak? Hetisime girmek 
i<pin sana mi basvuracaklar? 

Borga Kantiirk: Bu aslinda degiskenlik gosteren bir durum 
olacak. Bu arsivin kurumsal anlasmalan olacak. Oncelikli 
olarak projeye destek vermeyi kabul eden Platform Garanti 
Giincel Sanat Merkezi arsivin genisleyebilir bir kopyasimn 
daimi mekam olacak. $u an icin ana destekci Platform ve bu- 



Onder Ozengi: You mentioned that the main space of this 
archive is a harddisk. So how will the audience benefit from 
this disk? How will the encounters be? Will they apply to you 
for contact? 

Borga Kantiirk: This will be a situation that will variate. The 
archive will have corporate contracts. First of all, Platform 
Garanti Contemporary Art Center will be the base of an 
expandable copy of the archive. Currently, Platform is the 
only supporter and apart from that, various locations with 
privileges to display and share. These are generally archive 
spaces dedicated to contemporary arts, which pursue docu- 
mentative activies. Of course, in time, internet will provide 
a mid-space for sharing this "database". Although it's not 
been fleshed out yet, you can consider this as an info-desk. 
It might be like a city guide that you can reach through the 
internet. Actually it might differ according to the possibilities 
available to the locations with display/sharing privileges. The 
point is that the content will be exactly the same regardless of 
location and city. 

The first step will be on the locations mentioned and the 
second step will be online. In order for the archive to be 
online, it should reach the predestined percentages. So far, 
there's a 20% input. Data will be transformed into packages 
for iPhone, cellphone and computer users. Currently I'm 
focused on the accumulation of the data in small, medium 
and genuine scales. So there will be suitable sized videos for 
guests who connect with their iPhones. Also, high resolution 
versions can be reached via specific searches. 
Audience: Archive is often a corporate activity. Why did 
want to deal with it? 

B.K: At the moment it's more of a personal process and it is 
a little bit caused by the oversaturation and disillusionment 



79 



nun haricinde sergileme, paylasim hakkimn verildigi cesitli 
mekanlarda (bulusma noktalan) bulunacak. Bunlar genelde 
giincel sanata dair arsiv mekanlan, sanatin dokiimantasyo- 
nuna dair faaliyetlerini siirduren mekanlar olacak. Elbette ki 
ileride internet bu "database"in paylasima sunulacagi onemli 
bir ara-mekan teskil edecek. Kullanim sekline gelince: Ana 
"harddisk"in bagh oldugu bilgisayar bu verilerin goriildiigu 
mekan olacak. Bu, seklen heniiz tarn ideal olarak tasarlan- 
madi ancak bir "info-desk" gibi diisiinebilirsiniz: Internete 
girdiginiz, city-guide okudugunuz bir bankomat gibi olabilir. 
Acikcasi sergileme ve paylasma hakkina sahip mekanlarin 
olanaklarina gore de degiskenlik gosterecek. Onemli olan 
nokta, icerigin hangi sehir ve mekanda olursa olsun tama- 
men aym olacagi. 

Ilk etapta sozii edilen mekanlar icerisinde, ikinci etapta 
ise online olacak. Online olmasi icin arsivin bellek olarak 
hedeflenen yiizdelere cikmasi gerekiyor. Heniiz %20 gibi bir 
bilgi girisi sozkonusu. Cep telefonlan, i-phone ya da bilgisa- 
yar kullamcilari icin donustiirulmus cesitli paketler halinde 
de veriler olusturulacak. §u anda bireysel olarak bu bilgile- 
rin kiiciik, orta ve asil olmak iizere cesitli olceklerde topar- 
lanmasina dikkat ediyorum. Yani birisinin "i-phone"u ile 
gelip kendisine transfer ettiginde izleyebilecegi bir formatta 
bir sanatci videosu da bulunacak. Bunun yaninda da ozel 
aramalar icin yiiksek cozunurliiklu versiyonuna da veri 
olarak ulasilabilecek. 

jzleyici: Arsiv genelde kurumsal bir faaliyet. Arsiv ile neden 
ugrasmak istediniz? 

B.K: Bu simdilik bireysel olarak yuriitiilen bir siirec ve 
bunu yapmamin nedeni sergilemeye karsi biraz doymusluk 
ve inancsizhk. En azindan bir siireligine. Gosterilen seyin 
dogru kanah, dogru "network'ii bulamamasi ya da buna net 



towards display. At least for a while. It's the discomfort and 
distress due to the lack of relevancy of the object not finding 
the proper channel, the true "network" for itself or at least 
not reaching it easily and directly. This amplifies the lack of 
confidence of what you do and it undermines your faith in it. 
It's impossible to continue the same activity or performance 
without establishing this channel of communication. In such 
a situation, the exhibitions where you act as artist or curator 
tend to repeat itself, leading you to think that you cannot 
break the cycle. These repetitions bore the spectators, the 
participating artist and all the people in expectation. The 
alternatives are these new maps, new landscapes and these 
new theaters of engagement. How would it be to seek these 
for Izmir? 

Data concerning the contemporary art in Izmir, especial- 
ly if they're of 80s and 90s, are often whispers and hearsay. 
Lack of records is the main problem. Until now, there has 
been no official recording mechanism. But as soon as ssuch 
a mechanism is established, a backbone can be built upon 
it. And afterwards it can develop with the participation of 
curious researchers from the city or outside the city. It's only 
a matter of their efforts and motivation. This history and the 
acquired data can be a kind of reference chronicle. 
Oykii Ozsoy: So how do you determine the ones who are 
included in the archive? 

B.K: Frankly, I'd like to keep it broad for time being. Artists 
belonging to the 2000s are numerous. Older artists are often 
recorded, passed through a certain elimination but I reckon 
one should be more generous as far as the artists in their 
twenties are concerned. Eventually time will elect them- it's 
difficult to know who will remain and who will be forgot- 
ten, especially in this age. Therefore, there will be a tagging 



80 



"soyagaci" kokenlidir. Ana bir klasman baslik, onun altinda 
daha detayh ve farkli dallar.Bu mantik bizim hem kaybolma- 
mizi hem de aradigimiz seyi daha kolay ve diizenli bir yoldan 
bulmamizi saglar. Once bir klasor acarsiniz, arastirmamza 
iliskin verileri onun icine atarsimz, alan genisler, spesifik 
detaylar, veriler ortaya ciktikca alt klasorlere ve daha da alt 
klasorlere ihtiyac duyarsmiz. Benim klasor sistemim (buna 
bir sayisal agac da diyebiliriz), Bir bas klasor altinda 9 ana 
klasor ve onlarin altindaki spesifiklesen verilerin depolandigi 
ara klasorlerden olusmakta. 

"Izmir Giincel Sanat Arqivi - IGSA" 
Ana Klasorler: 

"Sanatcilar" 

"Sergilerl987-2000" 

"Bagimsiz Kolektifler/Gruplar/Sanatci Mekdnlari/Bireysel 

Projeler" 

"Galeriler" 

"Kiiratoryel Pratikler" 

"Yazarlar" 

"Proje-Mekdnlar, Kurumsal Alternatifler" 

"Sehir Dtsmdan kurumsal Kayttlar" 

Bunlar arasinda omurgamn en onemli iki klasorii sanatci- 
lar ve sergiler. Sonrasinda da alt klasorler geliyor. 

Birinci ana klasor : "Sanatcilar" giincel sanat arsivinin 
belirgin ana odagi elbette sanatcilari icermekte. Buradaki 
simflandirma tarihsel ve 4 alt klasorden olusuyor. Izmir sanat 
sahnesinde aktif rol oynamis sanatcilari baz alarak gelistiril- 
mis kategoriler. 



"Galleries" 

"Curatorial Practices" 

"Writers" 

"Project-Locations, Corporate Alternatives" 

"Corporate Records from Out of Town" 

Among these, artists and exhibitions are most important 
folders of this backbone. They are followed by sub-folders. 

The first mainfolder: "Artists", form the main focus of 
the contemporary art archive. The categorization here is 
chronological and consists of 4 subfolders. The categories are 
based on artists who have played a significant role in Izmir 
art scene. 

IGSA 01-Artists: 

01A- First generation: Pioneering artists. Those who formed 

the artistic dynamics of 1980s. (Cengiz Cekil, Ann Aksel, Erdag 

Aksel and Halil Akdeniz) 

01B- Second generation: Mid-generation artists, 1990s-2000s. 

(Ahmet Uhri, Arzu Cakir, Ekrem Yalcmdag, Esra Okyay, 

Giiven Incirlioglu, Hiiseyin Alptekin, Murat Ozdemir, Oktay 

Sahinler, Ramazan Bayrakoglu, Sefa Saglam, Sevgi Avci, 

Vahap Avsar) 

01C- Third Generation: Artists who actively produced during 

late 90s to our dayfArtists who are at the midst of their career.) 

01D- Fourth Generation: Promising artists who began their 

productions in the first half of 2000s. 

This category contains artists who participated in several 
events, in group activities, taken part in important exhibi- 
tions. Some of them are now in other cities, some of them 
ceased production and some of them are deceased yet still 



81 



IGSA 01 -Sanatcilar: 

01A - Birinci kusak: Oncii sanatcilar, 1980'li yillarin giincel 

sanat dinamigini olusturan sanatcilar. (Cengiz Cekil, Ann 

Aksel, Erdag Aksel ve Halil Akdeniz) 

01B - ikinci kusak: Orta kusak sanatcilar, 1990- 

2000'ler. (Ahmet Uhri, Arzu Cakir, Ekrem Yalcmdag, Esra 

Okyay, Giiven incirlioglu, Hiiseyin Alptekin, Murat Ozdemir, 

Oktay Sahinler, Ramazan Bayrakoglu, Sefa Saglam, Sevgi 

Avci, Vahap Avsar) 

01C - Ucuncii kusak: Simdi, 90'lt yillarin sonlari 

ve 2000'lerde aktif iiretim gbsteren sanatcilar. (Kariyerinin 

ortasindaki sanatcilar) 

01D - Dorduncu kusak: Gelecek, 2000'lerin ilk yarismda 

iiretimlerine baslamis gelecek vadeden sanatcilar. (Kariyerine 

yeni baslamis sanatcilar) 

Buradaki klasman izmir'de belirli siirelerde iiretim 
gostermis, bazi olusumlara katilmis, grup faaliyetlerinde 
bulunmus, onemli sergi ve etkinliklerde yer almis bir cok 
sanatcilari icermekte. Bunlann bazilan simdi sehir disinda 
iiretmekte, bazilan iiretimi birakmis, bazilan vefat etmis, ba- 
zilan ise bu sehirde iiretime devam ediyor. Gene olanlar ise 
yeni yeni dolasima girmis ya da dolasima girmeyi bekleyen 
sanatcilar. Bu arsiv icerisinde hepsi bir araya getiriliyor. 

Omurgamn diger ana klasorii ise "Sergiler" bashgini 
tasiyor 

Ilk klasor, sanatcilari bir butiin olarak ancak 4 farkh 
iiretim zamanma ve yas grubuna bolerek arsivlerken ikinci- 
si, sergileri depolarken daha farkli bir yontem izliyor. Tarihsel 
olarak 80'li yillarin sonuna hatta izmir'deki ilk oncii serginin 
(toplu sergiT) yapildigi 1987 yihm nokta olarak secerken 
siireci gunumuze, 2009'a kadar getiriyor. 



some carry on with their efforts in the city. The younger ones 
are either newly introduced into the circulation or maybe 
still waiting. This archive attempts to gather them. 
The other folder of the backbone is "Exhibitions" 
While the first folder splits the artists according to their 
times of production and their age intervals, the second one 
treads a different path while storing the exhibitions. It takes 
the first pioneering exhibition in 1987 as reference and works 
its way towards 2009. 

IGSA-02Exhibitions: 

02A Pioneering Exhibitions, 

02B Group Exhibitions, 

02C Individual Exhibitions, 

02D Broad Participation Exhibitions-Events, 

02E Public Projects-Acts, 

02F Series, 

02G Santiye Exhibitions, 

02H K2 Exhibitions. 

As such it contains 8 folders. I saw it fit to categorize 
them as Santiye and K2, two important activities for Izmir as 
separate folders. It's because they're the two main struc- 
tures that served as cornerstones for the memory of the 
contemporary art production in the city. Their inclusion in 
the international networks makes them important. Other 
folders contain events, locations and individuals which feed 
these mainstreams; like curators, critics or writers who wrote 
analysis, reports, interview or comments about the events, 
artists and situations in Izmir. 

So at this point, if you have anything stuck in your mind, 
I can answer them. 



82 



ve rahat bir koldan ulasamama sikintisi, huzursuzlugu. Bu 
durum yaptiginiz is konusunda emin olamama duygusunu 
arttirmakta ve ona olan inanci kirmakta. Bu iletisim kanalmi 
bulmadan aym etkinligi, performansi devam ettirmeniz 
miimkun degil. Boyle bir durumda sanatci ya da kiirator ola- 
rak gerceklestirdiginiz sergiler kendini tekrar ediyor, zinciri 
kiramadigimzi dusiinmenize neden oluyor. Bu tekrarlar 
izleyiciyi, katilimci sanatciyi, disandan -lokal haricin- 
den- meraklilari, tiim beklentide olanlan biktinyor. Buna 
alternatif olacak sey iste yeni haritalar, yeni zeminler, yeni 
muhatap alanlari yaratmak. Izmir icin nasil olabilir bunu 
aramak mesela? 

Izmir giincel sanatina dair veriler, hele bunlar 80-90'lara 
iliskin ise, genelde kulaktan dolma ve fisilti seklinde yayilan 
doneler. Kayda gecmemislik genel ve ana problem. Bugiine 
kadar da bir resmi kayit mekanizmasi ortaya cikmamis. An- 
cak boyle bir kayit mekanizmasi olustugu andan itibaren ha- 
zir bir omurga kurulmaya baslanabilir. Ve bundan sonrasi ise 
artik sehir ici ve sehir disi merakh arastirmacilarm cabalarry- 
la gelisebilir. Onlarin harcadigi efor ve motivasyonuna kahms 
bir durum artik. Bu tarihce ve elde edilmis veri bir cesit 
referans kiilliyati olarak elde tutulabilir. 
Qykti Ozsoy: Peki bu sanatcilan, arsivde yer alan kisileri 
neye gore, nasil belirliyorsun? 

BK: Acikcasi once genis tutmaktan yanayim. Ozellikle 
2000'li yillara ait sanatcilar cok. Eski sanatcilar, genelde 
kayda girmis, belirli bir elemeden zaten gecmis olan sanat- 
cilar, ancak 20'li yaslannda olanlan secme konusunda daha 
comert davranmak gerek diye dusiinuyorum. Ciinkii onlari 
zaman eleyecek, kimin kalici olup kimin unutulacagim sim- 
diden kestirmek giic, hele hele bu cagda. Bu sebeple belirli 
bir etiketleme sistemi ile gidilecek. Ornegin Izmir icin onem- 



system. For instance, you search for a broadly participated 
exhibition with a considerable effect on Izmir. And let's say 
you encounter the exhibition "Stuck In Between". You search 
through the participants where "Stuck In Between" is your 
tag. Later on, you encounter a few of the artists there in 
another joint exhibition or a foreign exhibition. These names 
and tags remain underlined in your mind, ending up as 
names that are searched more often and encountered more 
frequently. 

I looked for reference points to see what to show to the 
people from outside the city who have no knowledge about 
the city. There are certain exit points concerning my archive 
and Izmir Contemporary Art History. It's some sort of facts 
corner. 

This piece that I'm showing you at the moment belongs to 
an artist whom you know well and who currently produces 
in Istanbul: a photograph by Hale Tenger. First thing to 
notice on the picture is tne shoreline, a port where military 
ships are docked, balloons lined up on a string on the water 
and a merchant who charges people to shoot at the balloons 
with a rifle. It's a common sight in Turkey. What calls to most 
of the people in Izmir and I are the helical floor tiles on the 
ground. The location is the passport ferry port in Izmir. A 
shoreline that stretches along Konak and Alsancak, a typical 
Mediterrainean coast with palmtrees all along. So, why this 
shoreline and these tiles? We can delve deeper into this argu- 
ment by taking Tenger's artwork as a geographic information. 
Hale Tenger is a second generation Turkish artist and she 
produced this piece in Izmir. 

Another artist whom I can show reference to these tiles, is 
one of fourth generation's young artists: Bahar Oganer. This 
canvas painting takes the second cordon as location as well. 



;V 



li bir etki yapmis genis katilimh bir sergi aradiniz: Karsiniza 
"arada kalmak" sergisi cikti diyelim. Oradaki katihmcilara 
bakiyorsunuz. "Arada kalmak" sizin icin bir etiket. Orada 
birlikte yer almis sanatcilardan ikisini, ucunii sonra diger bir 
ortak sergide daha goriiyorsunuz ya da yurtdisinda diger bir 
sergide. Bu isimler, etiketler birden beyninizde alti cizi- 
li, daha cok aranan ve karsilasilan isimlere doniisiiyor. 

$ehir disindan insanlar ve icerik konusunda yeterli 
bilgisi olmayan insanlara neyi gostermek cazip olur diye bu 
sunumu size yapmadan once referans noktalar arastirdim. 
Arsivime ve Izmir Giincel Sanat Tarihi'ne dair kimi cikis 
noktalan var. Bunlari bilelim kosesi gibi bir sey. 

§u an size gostermis oldugum cahsma Istanbul'da iiretim 
gosteren, cogunuzun yakindan tamdigi bir sanatciya ait: Hale 
Tenger' in bir fotograf isi. Fotografta ilk dikkat ceken sey 
bir deniz kenari, askeri gemilerin durdugu bir liman, denize 
dizilmis balonlar ve bu balonlara silahla atis yaptirarak para 
kazanan bir seyyar satici. Turkiye genelinde gorebileceginiz 
bir olay. Benim ve Izmir'de yasayan diger bir cok insanin 
dikkatimizi ceken sey, bu fotografta yer alan helezonik 
desenli (dalgayi cagnstiran sekliyle) yer karolan. Bu mekan 
Izmir pasaport vapur iskelesi. Izmir, Konak ile Alsancak arasi 
uzanan kordon seridine sahip ve tipik Akdeniz kentine ozgii 
deniz kenari ve palmiyeler bu kordon boyunca ilerlemekte. 
Peki neden kordon ve bu yer karolan? Bu argumana Hale 
Tenger'in yapiti sayesinde cografi bir enformasyon ola- 
rak derinlemesine inebiliriz. Hale Tenger Izmir'le iliskisi 
olan 2. kusak Tiirkiye'li giincel sanatcilardan ve bu yapiti 
izmir'de iiretmis. 

Bu yer karolarina referans olarak gosterecegim bir diger 
sanatci ise Izmir arsivinde 4. kusak genclerden birisi: Bahar 
Oganer. Bu tuval resminde ise gene lokasyon olarak ikinci 



The balloons are still visible in the composition. A figure 
whose back is turned towards the spectator and the sea with 
the balloons on the water. The background on which the 
figure stands consists of the very same tiles seen in Tenger's 
photograph. 

This might be the geographic and cultural point of 
information which connects these two artists from different 
generations. We can dub this "label" or as the bloggers say, a 
"tag". Therefore, with this archive, we will gain the possibility 
to observe these two artworks related to Izmir. Afterwards, 
this might enable us to produce arguments, establish com- 
munications between artists and situations and subsequently 
deepen them. It's possible to broaden this evaluation by 
combining Nur Muskara's photographs with Selim Birsel's 
"work" for § antiye Gallery. 

Selim Birsel + Agnes Perroux, "X", 13.10.1994-11.11.1994 

Selim Birsel's 25 paper boats painted with graphite are 
lined up in a diagonal pattern. The gallery's location is 
behind the former N.A.T.O. building and the positioning of 
these boats find their locations both by Perroux's work and 
by their own in reference to another part of the city. 

"Santiye exhibitions joined catalogue, 1997" 

O.O: Are these the connections that you made yourself or 
are they the stuff that came along while you were building 
the archive? 

B.K: I was in the loop. While archiving, you approach this 
relation in a curatorial sense and one inadvertantly makes 
the connection. They're not much of a surprise findings 



84 



kordonu referans alan bir gorsel. Kadraja gene denizin icinde 
gordiigiimuz balonlar giriyor. Izleyiciye sirti doniik bir 
figiir, arkasinda deniz ve suya birakilmis balonlar. Figii- 
run iizerinde durdugu fonu olusturan yer karolari ise Hale 
Tenger'in fotografi cektigi yerle tamamen aym karolar. 

Birbirinden farkli iki kusak sanatcimn cahsmalarinda 
baglayici, cografi ve kiiltiirel enformatik nokta bu ikisi 
olabilir. Bunlara "etiket" ya da blogger diliyle "tag" diyebili- 
riz. Boylelikle izmir'e ili§kin ornekler arasinda bu iki ise bir 
arada bakma olanagini bu tiirde bir arsivle bulacagiz. Bu da 
belki iizerine argiiman iiretme sansim yaratacak, sanatcilar 
ve durumlar arasinda iletisim kurmamizi once kolaylastira- 
cak sonra derinlestirecek. Bu ikili iliskiye, Nur Muskara'mn 
fotograf isleriyle Selim Birsel'in $antiye Galeri icin yapti- 
gi "isi'ni de ekleyerek, bunlan dortlii bir degerlendirmeye 
tabi tutarak genisletmek miimkun. 

Selim Birsel + Agnes Perroux, "X", 13.10.1994-11.11.1994 

"Selim Birsel'in 25 tane grafit boya ile boyanmis kagittan 
kayiklari diagonal bir dogrultuda pespese dizilmisler. 
Galeri'nin sehir icinde konumu eski N.A.T.O binasimn 
arkasindadir ve bu kayiklarm mekan icindeki duruslan hem 
Perroux'nun isine gore hem sehirdeki baska bir yere gore 
kendi yerlesim alanlarim buluyorlar."* 

*Santiye sergileri toplu katalogu, 1997 

66: Bunlar senin kurdugun baglantilar mi yoksa arsivi olus- 
tururken karsina cikan seyler mi? 

BK: Ben bu islerden haberdardim. Arsivlenirken bu iliskiye 
kiiratoryal bir zihin pratigiyle yaklasryorsamz ister istemez 



either. As I said, by making comparisons with different tags- 
titles and baselines, the links you search close in by them- 
selves. All that is left for you is to weave them together. It's 
easier to catch a glimpse of this on several artists. The matter 
is whether we can establish data with numerous exhibitions, 
artists and locations resulting with a fitting synthesis that 
have a solid base. It might lead to something completely 
lacking satisfaction. The second important finding is the 
past, present and resulting from their relations in terms of 
memory, the reason of us being here. 

Now, you're seeing images from an exhibition from 
$antiye Gallery in Alsancak, Izmir from 1994. 1 chose this 
one particularly due to a possible connection with the loca- 
tion of the exhibition "Relative Locations and Judgments" in 
Suriye Passage. It's because $antiye Gallery, just like this one, 
is a temporary location. A mutual construction of a congre- 
gation of artists, collectives and writers gathering without a 
corporate guidance, coming together voluntarily. An image 
of a 15-year-old memory. It belongs to Vahap Avsar's work, 
created for the exhibition titled "X". Thanks to Platform Ga- 
ranti Contemporary Art Center archive and Vasif Kortun. 

"X" is a 4-person project that belongs to Santiye Gallery's 
second season. First exhibition: 

Cirriculum: Vahap Avsar, slideshow, installation, Santiye Gal- 
lery, 1994 from "X" exhibition series. 

In the Santiye catalogue, Vahap Avsar's work was ex- 
plained as such: 

"...Vahap Avsar set an installation in the furthest portion 
of the gallery. Using the gallery's own platforms along with 
construction cast equipment, he built a 15 cm high platform. 



85 



zaten kuruyorsunuz. Cok da siipriz sonuclar, bulgular degil 
bunlar ashnda. Dedigim gibi farkli etiket-bashk ve zeminler- 
den karsilastirmalar yaptiginizda aradiginiz linkler birbirine 
bazen kendiliginden yanasiyor. Size de bunlarm arasim 
ormek kahyor. Bunu birkac sanatci iizerinde yakalamak 
kolay Cok sayida sergi, sanatci ve mekanla birlikte diisii- 
niildugiinde bir sentez yapip yerini bulan, temellere oturan 
veriler olusturabilecek miyiz asil mesele bu. Belki cok tatmin 
etmeyen bir sey de cikabilir. Ikinci onemli bulguysa gecmis, 
bugiin ve bunlarm bellek iliskisi iizerinden biraz da bizim 
neden su an burada oldugumuz ile ilgili gibi. 

1 994 yihndan izmir,Alsancak'ta bulunan $antiye 
Galeri'de gerceklestirilen bir sergiden gorseller goriiyorsu- 
nuz simdi. Bu gorseli su an Suriye Pasaji icerisinde "Goreli 
Konumlar ve Kanaatler" sergisinin mekani ile baglantili 
oldugunu dusiindugiim icin sectim. Ciinkii S. antiye Galeri 
de tipki bu mekan gibi, sanat icin gecici olarak kullamlan 
mekan. Sanatcilann, kolektiflerin ve yazarlarm disandan bir 
kurumsal yonlendirme olmaksizin, goniillii olarak bir 
araya geldikleri bir yapimn ortaklasa iiretilmesi. On bes yil 
oncesinin belleginden bir goruntii. Vahap Avsar'in S. antiye'de 
"X" bashkh sergi icin iirettigi calismaya ait. Bu gorsel icin 
Platform Garanti Giincel Sanat Merkezi arsivine ve Vasif 
kortun'a tesekkiirler. 

"X" § antiye galerinin ikinci sezonuna ait bir 4'lii proje. 
Birinci sergi: 

Isin kunyesi: Vahap Avsar, slideshow, enstalasyon, Santiye 
Galeri, 1 994 "X" sergi dizisinden. 



Upon the platform he put a table made from the leftover wood 
from the building construction and 8 stools. The projector on 
the table constantly flips through the almost hundred pieces 
of work of the four participating artists. In a space where the 
location predicts the artwork a-priori, this piece confronts 
knowledge of the location with knowledge of the artwork, 
revealing a who new area of production." 

"Santiye exhibitions joined catalogue, 1997" 

Objects used by Vahap Avsar are objects that were 
leftover from the renovation of the building; images belong- 
ing to the artist referring to the past, old works and artist's 
memory. As the audience breathes these dual memory, new 
references take a step with thought and word. 

Actually this is the point on which the exhibition stub- 
bornly stands: Issue of memory and discourse. I hope I 
expressed myself clearly. 

I'd like to give the final words to Onder Ozengi. 
6.6: 1 wasn't aware of what you showed, of the majority 
of the shows you mentioned or the reference to Izmir. As I 
understand, you're attempting to gather them together and 
form a chronological timeline. You're seeking a memory 
which is not really manifested clearly. Is it your aim to turn 
into a corporate body? 

B.K: The word eventually came back at me. Actually, it's not 
my wish to make it corporate. It's more like creating an art- 
ists' reflex that is aware of this memory.Becoming corporate, 
spaces that work like a corporation but has no corporate 
officiality, we talked a lot about those before the exhibition. 
6.6: But that memory will eventually become an official 
reference. If we want texts, images or links, we will look it 



86 



Vahap Avsar'in yaptigi seyi §antiye sergisi katalogunda su 
sekilde aciklamislar. 

"...Vahap Avsar galerinin dip kismmda girintili alanda 
bir yerlestirme gerceklestirdi. Galeride halihaztrda bulunan 
iki parcalt platformlart da kullanarak galeri mekaninin 
bir hsmint insaatta kullamlan kahp malzemeleriyle 15cm. 
yuksekliginde bir platform haline getirdi. Platform uzerine 
iseyine binamn insasinda kullamlan atik tahtalar dan yaptigi 
bir masa ve 8 tabureyi yerlestirdi. Masa iizerindeki slayt 
makinesi surekli olarak "X" sergilerindeki dort sanatcimn 
(SB+AP+CL+VA) 100 kadar cahsmasindan slaytlar gosteriyor. 
Sergileme mekaninin sanat yaptttntn anatomisini a-priori 
olarak belirledigi bu is, mekdmn bilgisiyle sanat yapitlarmm 
bilgisini karsi karsiya getiriyor ve sanat yapitina yeni bir 
iiretim alam aciyor." * 

*§antiye sergileri toplu katalogu, 1997 

Vahap Avsar'in kullandigi nesneler, mekanin tadilatindan 
cikan o mekanin bellegine iliskin nesneler; gecmise dair 
referans gosterilen sanatcilara ait gorseller, eski calismalar, 
sanatcimn bellegi. Izleyici bu ikili bellegi solurken yeni refe- 
ranslara da diisiince ve sozle adim atmakta. 

Zaten serginin de inatla iizerinde durdugu nokta bu: 
Bellek ve tartisma meselesi. Umanm kendi derdimi tarif 
edebilmisimdir. 

Son sozii Onder Ozengi' ye birakmak istiyorum. 
OO: Gosterdiklerinden, anlattigin cogu sergiden, jzmir'deki 
hareketten, ve gidisattan da pek haberim yoktu. Anladigim 
kadariyla onlari bir araya toplama ve tarihsel cizgiyi belir- 
leme gibi bir derdin var, Henuz cok da net olarak kurulma- 
mis, cizgileri netlesmemis bir bellegi arastinyorsun, Der- 



up in that archive. The temporal nature of your office will be 
seen from the way you situate them in this location. However 
I did not quite understand what you meant by the location's 
own memory. 

B.K: Let me put it this way. There's a question that's been 
bothering me nowadays. The city I'm living in. There are 
not many places that present a permanency. Infact I can say 
that continuity is a rather rare thing in this city. Therefore, 
artists relied on production and display strategies built 
upon being temporary. In the 80s, cultural center halls were 
the location of art shows. Afterwards, §antiye was used for 
two seasons. There was the show "Stuck In Between"- an 
unopened, concrete shopping mall was used for it. There 
are temporary art/culture spaces. Studio spaces. But due to 
the lack of incorporation tradition there's no permanency 
either. The dynamic is always nomadic and mobile. Perhaps 
because of this, the artists want to leave a lasting mark, a 
tend in memory. Perhaps it's some sort of obsession. As such, 
artists in Izmir value this partnership, the electricity and that 
dynamism. Now, it's changed a little bit. As the contemporary 
art professionalized and as the artists became more public, 
there's another issue to be considered. It wasn't like this in 
late 80s or early 90s. It was more confident, more sincere 
but it had a purity. For instance, in the § antiye exhibitions, 
Hiiseyin Alptekin was there as well. He was always an artist 
who focused on memory and cultural transitions. When the 
relations of memory, location and temporariness became an 
issue; he covered the walls with blocks of soap, with their 
traces and scent even giving some away after the exhibition 
as a souvenir, it was really important. They are marks of that 
day. Some of the people I spoke to still have those soaps. 
Serkan Ozkaya: There's an inadvertent peculiarity. 



8/ 



B.K: The problem here is probably that. A scent, a trace 
cannot be kept alive in a corporate space; a new thing comes 
up and replaces it. In such temporary structures on the 
other hand, value an empathy of theory and space through a 
memory. If the catalogue from the S, antiye exhibition wasn't 
published after a lot of trouble, we wouldn't be aware of it 
so easily. This is kind of why this archive is so important. I 
guess this is the reason of my fright from incorporation. But 
informing others of what's being done here with determi- 
nation, sincerity and livelihood is a responsibility to be 
undertaken. 

O.O: As far as the artists are concerned, the progress seems 
to be slow. I don't think there are galleries in Izmir that have 
corporate records or exhibitions. It seems to be temporary 
spaces entirely. K2 seems to be the most incorporated in that 
sense. 

B.K: Yes, it partially depends on trial and error. These tem- 
porary locations are experimental grounds for artists. But 
due to the lack of administrative boundries and assignments, 
issues of memory and recording seem to get lost along the 
way while trying to save the day by trying to preserve the 
continuity. After the time is expired, the space is emptied, 
with the artists flew back abroad, it's rather hurtful not to 
have any material documentation of all those things pulled 
off in great excitement and fulfillment. You get filled with 
feelings of not having somebody to speak or to understand 
you. 

With a final round on the archive topic. At this point I 
can't foresee whether it'll become a corporate structure in the 
future. Whether it can survive as it naturally did to this day, 
that's always an interesting question. Especially when the 
internet is taken into consideration. Hundreds of people are 



sharing their video-audio-image archives in rapidshare, you- 
tube or vimeo. Sometimes it takes hours for them. Subtitle 
sites try to provide a corporate service of translations with 
personal efforts. It's like a separate world that naturally shares 
and sets its own rules. It's as if it says "somebody incorporate 
me." 

6.6: A question: This archive will contain categories like eras 
and locations. How will the participant relate them to each 
other? How will the participation be? Will they feel active? 
You mentioned that the data here will be able to be related 
and observed rapidly and throughly. But will these observa- 
tions affect and/or improve the data? Maybe one will take an 
artist for his/her show, prepare a research text or use a space. 
They will disrupt the existing structure, reconstruct it and 
add something up on it. You want this, don't you? 
B.K: Yes. Expansion is rather like forum moderation. In 
terms of internet jargon, searching for "admins" and mem- 
bers. Besides the archive is there only to be expanded. But 
the roles of the admins, the editors and the members are 
considerable as well. While the main memory expands, the 
editors must definitely be aware of the input. 
Audience: So, why the title "-1"? 

B.K: It's about some things being better off few and definite 
rather than being many but indefinite. "-1" signifies under- 
ground and also the reduction in numbers. It's like subtract- 
ing one from the crowd. Categories, classifications are pretty 
much like substraction. It's like picking away stone chips in 
rice. Then piling up the stones, adding them up. That's what 
I'll do. Thank you all for listening. 



Tranlated by M. Emir Uslu 






din bu beilegi -belki de- kurumsallastirmaya gahgmak mi? 
BK: Soz gene bana dondii. Aslinda bu tarn olarak bellegi ku- 
rumsallastirma istegi degil de, o bellegin bilincinde olan bir 
sanatci refleksi yaratmak gibi. Kurumsallasma, kurum gibi 
cahsan ama kurum resmiyeti olmayan alanlar, bunlari sergi 
oncesi bayagi tartismistik . 

66: Ama o bellek gene de bir resmi referans olacak eninde 
sonunda, Metin istiyorsak, imai istiyorsak, linkler istiyor- 
sak o gosterdigin, adim koydugun seye/arsive bakacagiz. 
Kurdugun ofisin "gecici" olmasi, bu topladigin veriyi - bu 
sergideki gibi - gecici olarak kullamlan bir mekanin icerisine 
yerlestirmenden anlasihr. Ancak iizerinde durdugun meka- 
nin kendi bellegi meselesini tarn olarak anlayamadim, 
BK: Soyle aciklamaya cahsayim. §u siralar kafamda bogus- 
tugum bir soru var. izmir'e donelim gene. Yasadigim sehir. 
Sanat adina yillardir kahcilik gosteren cok mekan yok. Hatta 
devamhhgin bu sehir icin zor, az rastlamr oldugunu soyle- 
yebilirim. Bu nedenle, sanatcilar kahcilik gosterebilmek icin 
iiretim ve sergileme pratiklerini hep gecicilik iizerine gecici 
stratejiler kurarak saglamaya cahsmislar. 80'lerde kiiltiir 
merkezlerinin salonlan toplu sergilerin yeri olmus, sonrasin- 
da $antiye isimli yer iki sezonluguna kullamlmis; "Arada Kal- 
mak" isimli sergi var: Heniiz acilmamis, ham beton, dev bir 
ahsveris merkezi kullamlmis. Gecici, kiiciik sanat mekanlari 
var. Stiidyo mekanlar. Ancak kurumsallasma gelenegi de 
olmadigindan kahcilik yok. Dinamik, hep gocebe ve hep ha- 
reketli. Bu sebeple belki mekanlann tasinabilirligi iizerinde 
sanatcinin kahci bir iz, bellek kazisi yapma istegi oluyor. Bu 
belki de bir takinti. Boyle olunca sergileme anlarmdaki 
ortakhga, o dinamizme, elektrige onem veriyor Izmir'deki 
sanatcilar. Simdi biraz degisti bu: Giincel sanatin profesyo- 
nellesmesi ve sanatcilarm daha cok goz oniinde bulunmasi 



gibi bir durum var. 80 sonlan 90 baslarinda boyle degildi. 
Daha inanchydi, samimiydi ama o safliktaydi. Mesela bu 
§antiye sergilerinde Hiiseyin Alptekin de vardi. Hiiseyin hep 
bellek ve kiilturel gecisler iizerine cahsan bir sanatciydi. Bel- 
lek, mekan, gecicilik iliskisi giindeme geldiginde: 95 yihnda 
Hiiseyin'in bu mekanin duvarlanna ilistirdigi sabunlarimn izi 
icin mekana dair bir bellek vurgusunu, sabunlarm biraktigi 
koku ve izle saglamasi; sergiden birer armagan olarak da 
kimi sabunlan sergi sonrasi paylasmasi burada onemli. O 
giine dair isaretler. Konustugum bazi kisilerde bu sabunlar- 
dan var ve hala sakhyorlar. 

Serkan Ozkaya: Ister istemez mekana ozgiiliik var. 
BK: Sorun biraz burada galiba. Kurumsal mekanda bu 
iz, koku yasatilmaz; yerine yeni bir sey gelir ve konur. Bu 
tiirden gecici yapilar ise -bir cesit bellekten, akildan- teori 
ve mekan empatisini onemser. $antiyedeki sergilerin zor 
zahmet bir katalogu basilmasaydi belki bundan zor haberdar 
olacaktik. Bu arsiv biraz da bu sebepten onemli bir noktada 
duruyor. Kurumsallasma korkum biraz yukardaki inanis- 
tan. Ancak birilerini burada neler olup bittiginden, inane- 
la, samimiyetle ve yasayarak haberdar etmesi; samrim iistle- 
nilmesi gereken birsey. 

66: Sanatcilar acisindan isleyiste bir agirhk var gibi. Yani 
izmir'de kurumsal kayit yapan, sergileyen galeri de yok sam- 
rim. Tamamen gecici mekanlar iizerine aliyor gibi. K2 belki 
en kurumsal olabileni bunlar arasinda. 
BK: Evet biraz yaparak, deneyerek ogrenmeye iliskin. 
Sanatcilarm ugrastiklan bu gecici mekanlar bir deneyim 
alam. Ama net bir yonetimsel sinir ve gorev dagihmi da 
olmadigi icin bellek ve kayit meselesi, giinii kurtarmaya ve 
etkinliklerin devamhhgim saglamaya cahsmaktan hep es 
geciliyor. Hadi siireniz doldu, mekan dagildi, grup iiyeleri 






yurt disina kactilar, destekciler emekli oldu gibi durumlarla 
karsilastigimzda, biiyiik bir heyecan ve ekstra bir hizla ko- 
tarilan onca seyin, kolektif ya da bireysel tatminin yamnda, 
dolasimim saglayacak birkac yayin, belge-materyal cikar- 
tamadiginizi gormek cok acitici oluyor. Muhatapsizhk ve 
yalmzhk duygusu, beni kim anlar ve beni dinleyecek birileri 
var mi hisleriyle doluyorsunuz. 

Bu arsiv meselesine son kez gelirsek. Bu noktada ge- 
lecegi, kurumsal bir olusuma donusecek yapiya doniisiip 
doniismeyecegini net olarak goremiyorum. Acaba bu dogal- 
hkta ve dogasi bugiine kadar geldigi geregi siirdiirebilmek 
miimkun mii sorusu hep ilgi cekici. Ozellikle internet alamni 
diisiiniince. Yiizlerce kisi rapidshare, youtube, vimeo gibi 
alanlarda video-ses-imaj arsivlerini non-profit bir sekilde 
paylasiyor, tasnifleyebiliyor. Bu bazen onlarin saatlerini ali- 
yor. Altyazi sitelerinde kisisel bir cabayla, kurumsal bir yapi 
gibi insanlarla dilden dile bir film altyazisi ceviri hizmeti 
sunuluyor. Bu kendi dogasi geregi paylasimda olan, kendi 
kurallarmi koyan bir ayri/ara evren gibi. Kurumsallastikca 
bu esneklik, bu suyun yolunu bulma durumu nasil gercekle- 
secek ben kestiremiyorum. Biri beni kurumsallastirsin gibi 
bir his. 

66: $oyle bir sey soracagim: Bu arsivde donemler ve 
mekanlar gibi kategoriler olacak. Katihmci onlari nasil 
birbiriyle iliskilendirecek? Katihmi nasil olacak? Aktif 
hissedebilecek mi? Sen, buradaki verileri ahp istedigi gibi 
iliskilendirip detayh ya da hizhca inceleyebilecek, dedin. 
Peki onun bu incelemeler sonrasi katkisi ya da oradaki veriye 
etkisi olacak mi? 

Belki sergisine sanatci alacak, bir arastirma metni hazir- 
layacak ya da bir mekam kullanmak isteyecek. Bu ana kadar 
kurulmus kronolojik duran yapiyi bozacak, yeniden kuracak 



ve iizerine bir seyler ekleyecek. Bunu istiyorsun degil mi? 
BK: Evet. Genisletmek bir forum yoneticiligi gibi biraz da. 
Internet jargonuyla soylersen kendine "admin'ler ya da iiye- 
ler aramak. Zaten arsiv tamamen genisletilebilmesi icin var. 
Ancak "admin'lerin, editoriin ve iiyelerin rolleri onemli 
tabii. Ana bellek genislerken editoryal yapimn bu girdiler- 
den kesinlikle haberdar olmasi gerekiyor. 
jzleyici: Peki niye "-1" dive bir isim? 

BK: Bir seylerin cok ve belirsiz olmasindansa az ve belirlene- 
bilir, tammlanabilir olmasiyla ilgili. "-1" zemin altini isaret 
ediyor. Bir de sayica azaltmayi, kalabahktan 1 cikartigim 
diisiinmek gibi. Kategoriler, simflandirmalar cikartma islemi 
gibi bir sey Pirinc tasi ayiklamak gibi. Sonra cikan taslari 
bir araya getirip saymak, toplamak. Yapacagim bu. Hepinize 
dinlediginiz icin cok tesekkiirler. 

18 nisan 2009, Cumartesi 



90 



CANERASLANiLE 
BIR MONOLOG* 
A MONOLOGUE WITH 
CANERASLAN* 



AHMET OGUT 



Ahmet: Merhaba Caner, orda misin? Sana ilk sorum su olacak; 
Amsterdam'da senin memlekete donmene yakin bir vakit 
arkada§inm bisikletini caldirmistm. Ciinkii anahtan iizerinde 
unutmustun. Aym gece yolda sana yaklasan bir "junkie'den bir 
bisiklet satin almistin. Sonra ben de senden o bisikleti satin 
almistim. Birkac ay sonra senden aldigim o bisikleti, anahtan 
iizerinde unuttugum icin caldirmistim. Sence bu kader mi, yoksa 
tesadiif mii? Ya da sorumu senin Masa'da gerceklesmeyen sergin- 
den esinle daha anlasihr birsekilde soyle sorayim: Hizi saatte 80 
km olan bir hareketli A noktasindan, hizi saatte 80 km olan diger 
bir hareketli B noktasindan birbirlerine dogru aym anda hareket 
ediyorlar ve C gibi bir noktada karsilasiyorlar. A dan hareket 
eden, karsilastiklarmdan 3 saat sonra B noktasina vardigina gore, 
AB arasi kac km dir? 

Ahmet: Amsterdam macerasmdan sonra bir de 5. Berlin Bienali 
maceramiz oldu. Bienalde kolaj-posterlerinin orjinalleri Neue 
Nationalgalerie'de sergilendi. Aym posterler ayrica kopyalamp 
cogaltildi, sehirde baska mekanlara yayildi. Posterlerinde uygula- 
digm kelime cambazhklarmdan bir tanesi "Italy got hungary and 
fried turkey in greece"di. Izleyiciden beklentin okudugundan bir 
anlam cikarmasindan ziyade, dil cambazliginin keyfine varmasi 
miydi? 



Ahmet: Hello Caner, are you there? My first question will be; 
around the time before your return to homeland, you had a 
bicycle of a friend of yours stolen because you had forgotten the 
keys on it. On the same night, you bought another bike from a 
junkie that approached you. Then I bought that bike from you. 
A few months later, I had that bicycle stolen because I forgot 
the keys on it. Do you think it's faith or coincidence? Or let me 
recapitulate that question in a more comprehensible way, refer- 
ring to your exhibition that did not take place at Masa: A mobile 
with the speed of 80 km/h, starting out from point A, meets at 
the point C with another mobile B with 80 km/h from opposite 
direction. If the mobile A arrives at B's starting point in 3 hours, 
what's the distance between A and B? 

Ahmet: After the adventure in Amsterdam, we had another 
adventure in 5th Berlin Biennale. The originals of the collage 
- posters were displayed in Neue National Galerie. The same 
posters were reproduced and distributed in various locations in 
the city. One of the word games you did in them was the phrase 
"Italy got hungary and fried turkey in greece". Was your aim the 
spectators' extraction of a meaning from the text or simply the 
pleasure of the game? 



91 



Ahmet: Berlin Bienali kataloguna fotografim koydugun Paul 
Doplicher'in en biiyiik esin kaynagin oldugunu soyleyemissin. O 
fotografin hemen altinda Herzog'un 70Terden gelen karakte- 
ri, hapisten yeni cikmis goriintusuyle Stroszek'i goriince ikisi 
arasinda bir bag kurmaya calismaktan kendimi alamamistim. 
Arkadasin Paul hakkmda hie birsey bilmiyorum, ama Stroszek'i 
heyecanla izlemistim, Ian Curtis'in kendini astigi gece Stroszek'i 
izledigini Corbijn'in filminde gormiistum. Anlayacagin iki 
fotografi bir sekilde iliskilendirmeye cahsiyorum. Islerinde ve da 
referanslarmda kurguladigin "iliskisizlik" iliskisi siirekli karsimi- 
za cikiyor. Ozellikle BB5'da sergilenen posterlerinde bu durum 
cok belirgin. Yamhyor muyum? 

Ahmet: Bu iliskisizlik iliskisi, cizimlerinde de devam ediyor, ya- 
riscilarla hemsireler, kaptanlarla cocuklar, karetecilerle filmciler, 
takim elbiselilerle polis timi... yani sadetle giiruhlarla giiruhlar 
mi? 

Ahmet: "Goreli Konumlar ve Kanaatler" sergisi kapsaminda 
yaptigin 15 dakikahk sunuma da belli bir konu olmayacak 
diyerek basladigim hatirhyorum. Ashnda bu ciimle biitiin isle- 
rindeki stratejiyi ozetliyor. Konu secmek yerine, absiirt detaylar 
iizerinden kurdugun baglantilarla yeni iliskilere ve iliskisizliklere 
olanak mi tammak istiyorsun? Holbein, Vermeer gibi ressam- 
larin resimlerindeki hahlardan baslayip, sonra bir anda abinle, 
cocukken oynadigimz hah oyununu ammsamak icin hatirla- 
diginiz kadanyla yaptigimz ev planlarim gosterdin. Birbiriyle 
iliskisi olmayan bu planlar aym evi tasvir ediyordu. O esnada bizi 
giildiiren aradaki iliskisizligin absiirt buyukliigtiydu. 15 dakikahk 
hizlandinlmis sunumunu Winona Ryder'a Beter Bocek'in (beetle 
juice) ismini soylemeye cahstigi sahneyle bitirdin. Wionna 
Ryder, tarn da senin islerine bakan izleyicinin durdugu konum- 
da, garip bir merakla Beter Bocek'in ona ne anlatmaya cahstigini 
anlamaya calisiyordu. 

* Sorular Caner Aslan'a yoneltilmi^tir, ancak cevap vermesi beklenmemektedir. 



Ahmet: You mentioned that Paul Doplicher, whose picture you 
had put in Berlin Biennale catalogue was your greatest inspira- 
tion. When I saw Herzog's character from 70s, Stroszek, with 
his outlook straight of prison below that photograph I couldn't 
help trying to make a connection. I don't know anything about 
your friend Paul but I watched Storszek with excitement. And I 
saw that Ian Curtis watched him on the night when he hanged 
himself in Corbjin's movie. As you can see, I'm trying to connect 
those two photographs. We constantly encounter the relations 
of "the unrelated' in your works and references. It's particularly 
evident in your posters in BB5. Am I right? 
Ahmet: This relation of the unrelated continues in your draw- 
ings, racers with nurses, captains with children, karate fighters 
with filmers, suits with police squads... in short, masses with 
masses? 

Ahmet: I recall that during your 15 minutes presentation in the 
exhibition "Relative Positions and Conclusions", you began with 
pointing out that there would not be a certain theme. In fact, this 
statement summarizes the strategy in all of your works. Instead 
of picking a subject, are you trying to let forth the new relations 
and their lack thereof, via the contexts you contruct with absurd 
details? Starting out with carpets in paintings of artists such as 
Holbein and Vermeer, you suddenly showed the house plans you 
prepared to remind you the carpet game you played with your 
brother. These unrelated plans described the same house. At that 
instance, it was the hugeness of the absurdity that made us laugh. 
You compeleted your 15-minutes-long sped-up presentation with 
the scene where Winona Ryder tried to say "Beetlejuice". Winona 
Ryder was on the same spot with the spectator, trying to under- 
stand what Beetlejuice was trying to tell, with a strange curiosity. 

Tranlated by M. Emir Uslu 

* The questions are asked for Caner Asian but it's not expected of him to reply. 



92 



15DAKiKA 
15 MINUTES 



CANERASLAN 



Merhaba, kisa bir sunum yapacagim, belli bir konu iizerine 
olmayacak, cok arastirmaya da dayali degil, ne kadar siirerse. 
Hafif dogaclama olacak. Ugrastigim seyler degil, daha cok 
karsima cikan seyler hakkinda, daha dogrusu...kansik simdi 
biraz... belli konulan birbirine baglamaya calisacagim, bazi- 
lan baglanmayabilir cok cahsmadigim icin, aslinda baska bir 
seyle baslayacaktim, son anda degistirdim, biraz garip oldu. 
Neyse Bu Lenin'in 1923'te cekilmis bir fotografi, felc gecir- 
dikten sonra, emeklilik zamanlarina ait. Bu da 1920 senesi, 
Lenin tahta bir kiirsiiden askerlere karsi konusma yapryor, 
hizlica geciyorum. Bu da El Lissitzky'nin Lenin icin tasarla- 
digi tasinabilir kiirsii, hayata gecmis bir sey degil, eee hizh 
bir sekilde anlatacagim dedim ama hizi yakalayamiyorum... 




Hello, I'll make a brief presentation. It will not be on a par- 
ticular subject, not founded on heavy research. It'll go as 
long as it will, slightly improvised. 

Not about the stuff I've been dealing with, more likely stuff 
that came across me. Actually... it's a bit complicated... I'll 
try connect several subjects. Some might not be connected 
due to my lack of effort. In fact, I'd start off with something 
else then I changed it in the very last moment, therefore it's 
a bit strange. This is a photograph of Lenin, shot in 1923, 
after his stroke, during his retirement. Then it's 1920, Lenin's 
on a wooden stand, speaking to the soldiers. I'll go qiuckly... 
Then this, El Lissitsky's design of a portable stand for Lenin. 
It's not realized... uhm... I said I'd go quickly but now I can't 
catch up with the speed. 
Onder: No need to rush... 

Ahmet: Not to remind you but you were going to tell quickly. 
El Lissitsky focused on the point of being mobile, probably 
capitulating on catching up with the revolutionary move- 
ment. You bring it over, set it up, Lenin comes up and gives 



93 




Onder: Acelesi yok abi, 

Ahmet: Hatirlatmak gibi olmasin ama hizh anlatacaktin. 

El Lissitzky o siralarda devrimin hareketini yakalayabilmek 

icin belki de, tasinabilir olmasi uzerinde durmus, alana geti- 

riyorsun, kuruyorsun, Lenin iizerine cikip konusuyor, daha 

sonra demonte edip baska bir alana gotiiriiyorsun, bu sekilde 

devam ediyor. Bunu sevmemin nedeni, El Lissitzky Lenin'in 

mozalesini de yapabilirdi ama onun yerine Lenin'in iizerine 

cikip konusabilecegi bir sey yapmayi tercih etti. 

Bu Atatiirk ve Amerikan biiyiikelcisi, biiyiik ihtimal ilk defa 

kameraya karsi konusuyorlar. 

Ozdemir: Youtube' da var bu, cumhurbaskanhgi sitesinde 

de var. 



Evet, sesli sinemanm ilk ortaya ciktigi zamanlarda, otuzlarin 
baslari sanmm, biliyorsunuz tabi canim, cogu anlatacagim 
sey zaten bildiginiz seyler. Bunun ilginc tarafi viicut dilleri, 
farketmissinizdir, su sekilde, sanmm o zamanlara ait bir sey, 
burda Atatiirk konusuyor, Amerikan biiyiikelcisi gergin biraz, 
o da Atatiirk'iin hareketlerini taklit ediyor, Atatiirk ellerini 
kaldinyor, biiyiikelci de aym, devam ediyor... 
Elmas: Sevdigin insanlan taklit edermissin, karsindaki mese- 
la kafasim kasiyorsa, sen de kafam kasiyorsun, soyle duruyo 
ya, o da ister istemez boyle duruyor, hayranhk gostergesi.... 



his speech, then it's dismantled and taken to another place 
and so it goes. The reason I liked this is that El Lissitsky 
could have made Lenin's monument but instead he made 
something for him to stand on and speak. 
This is Atatiirk and the American ambassador. Probably it's 
the first time they speak in front of a camera. 
Ozdemir: This one's on youtube, on the presidency's website 
as well. 

Yes, during beginning of thirties, when the audio cinema first 
emerged... of course you know- you know most of the things 
I'll tell. The interesting thing is, as you might have noticed, 
is the body language. I guess it's something that belonged to 
that era. It's like... Atatiirk speaks while the ambassador is 
rather nervous so he imitates Atatiirk's movements. Atatiirk 
raises his hands, ambossador follows... and so it goes... 
Elmas: It's said that you imitate people you like around you- 
for instance, if one scratches his head, you scratch as well. 
He stands like so, you unintentionally mimic... Some sign of 



Is it? Might as well.. .This is Holbein's "Ambassadors". This 
one's really famous- those who take art history courses will 
remember this since it defined the term "anamorphic'T 
flipped this one with Photoshop. The skull can only be seen 



94 




Oyle mi?, olabilir, tabi.... Bu Holbein'in Elciler isimli res- 
mi. Bu iinliidiir, anamorfik kavramim tarif ettigi icin sanat 
tarihi derslerine girenler bilirler, o yiizden ben de bunu 
photoshop'ta cevirdim, burdaki kuru kafa sagdan cok dar bir 
acidan bakildiginda goriilebiliyor sadece, bu da normal hali, 
neyse... Bu soldaki Fransiz elcisi, sagdaki ise kiyafetlerinden 
cikarabildigim kadariyla piskopos, o da samnm elci, ciinkii 
resmin adi Elciler. Esyalar ilginc burada diinyayi betimleyen 
nesneler, samnm olcmeye bicmeye, bilimsel deney icin kul- 
lamlan bir takim aletler var, miizik aletleri var bir de kafatasi 
var, cok bilmiyorum ne anlatilmaya cahsihyordu, daha dog- 
rusu gizli bir mesaj varmiydi, ama burda ilginc olan baska 
bir sey, arkada masada duran hah. O donem Avrupa'da bazi 
ressamlar Anadolu hahlanm resimlerinde kullamyorlardi. 
Bu da Holbein tarzi hah. 



with a very narrow angle from the right and this is the nor- 
mal version. Anyway, on the left, it's the French ambassador. 
The one on the right, from what I can gather from his outfit, 
is a bishop. I guess he's an ambassador as well because the ti- 
tle is "Ambassadors". The items are curious as well, they're all 
used to measure stuff; items for scientific experiments, musi- 
cal instruments and a skull. I don't really understand what 
is explained, that is, if there's a secret message but another 
curious thing is the carpet on the table at the back. In those 
times, European artists used Anatolian carpets in their paint- 
ings and this is Holbein's style of carpet. If you look carefully, 
there are carpets grouped in the Museum of Turkish and 
Islamic Arts, called Holbein carpets- 1 came across that some 
website of a carpet merchant. He looks for the stories behind 
the special carpets he makes, becomes unsatisfied, searches 
around in Sultanahmet and realizes that what he was look- 
ing for was in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts , gets 
impressed. He produces this sort of carpets. This is Vermeer, 
the Dutch painter.. .uhm... I guess in that period, Europeans 
used carpet as tablecloth. 
Didem: The mark of affluency. 




M 



Holbein bunu resminde kullandigi icin, goriirseniz Turk 
Islam Eserleri miizesinde, belli hahlar gruplanmis, o tarz 
hahlar Holbein hahsi olarak adlandinhyor, buna internette 
bir hah tiiccarimn sitesinde denk geldim, iirettigi ozel hah- 




Yes, decoration, symbol of wealth. Normally carpet derived 
from the need for isolation. And that's a painting by Lotto. 
That's Vermeer. .yet another Vermeer; that is Cevdet Erek's 
work titled "SSS". He lays the carpet on the table as well. Here 



95 



larin hikayesini anlatiyordu, cesitli yerlerde hahlar arastinr, 
Sultanahmet'e bakimr, tatmin olmaz, en son aradigi seyi Turk 
islam Eserleri Miizesi'nde bulur, cok etkilenir. Samnm bu 
seyin etkisi, Holbein resminde kullanmis, bunun yarattigi 
otantik etkiden olabilir biraz. Bu hahlan uretmeye bash- 
yor. Bu Vermeer, Hollandah ressam, bu da , eee.... genelde 
Avrupa'da bu donemde samnm masa ortiisu gibi kullamyolar 
hahyi. 

Didem: Zenginlik belirtisi 

Evet, siis, zenginlik belirtisi, normalde izolasyon icin ortaya 
cikmis bir seydir hah. Bu da Lotto'nun bir resmi. Bu Verme- 
er.. .Bu da Vermeer, 




bu Cevdet Erek'in SSS adh isi. Cevdet de hahyi masaya ko- 
yuyor, burda piyano ama bunu masada da denedigi perfor- 
manslan var Cevdet'in. Burada yeniden islevsel bir konuma 
geliyor hah, ama bu sefer sahil sesinin taklit edilmesi icin. 
Abimin cocukken icat ettigi bir oyun vardi, raptiyeleri belli 
bolgelerde hahmn altina yerlestirirdi, beni eglendirmek icin, 
ama tabi olasi bir faciaya yol acmamak icin daha cok olii 
noktalara koyardi, mesela ciceklerin yamna, ortada yiirume 
giizergahi disindaki yerlere. Olasihk hala var ama minimu- 
ma indirgenmis sekilde. Abime boyle bir oyun oynuyorduk 
hatirhyormusun diye sordugumda pek hatirlayamadi, peki 
dedim evi hatirhyormusun, galiba felan dedi, ben de evin 




it's a piano but there're performances where Cevdet tried it 
on a table. Here, carpet regains a functional value, this time 
to imitate the sound of the shore. 

There was a game that my brother invented when we were 
kids. He'd place pins under the carpet to entertain me. To 
avoid possible disasters, he'd put them at rather dead spots 
like near the flowerpots or just outside the regular walking 
patterns. There was still a possibility but it was minimized. 
When I asked my brother if he remembered us playing such 
a game, he could not really recall. Then I asked him if he 
remembered the house and he told me that vaguely did. So 
I asked him to draw a plan of the house. That's the plan he 
drew, with carpets and all... And this the plan of our house as 
I remember it. The combination of these... 



96 



SRFfc. 




plamm cizmesini istedim, bu da cjizdigi plan, hahlari da koy- 
mus ama.... bu da bizim evin benim hatirladigim haliyle olan 
plam. Bu ikisinin kombinasyonu bizi.... 
Elmas: Abin ne is yapiyor. 
Havacilik miihendisi. 

Bunu da biliyorsunuz, bu iinlii bir sey, Ayse Erkmen'in yanan 
heykeli. 

Ahmet: Bu Kemal Onsoy 'un, icindeki Ayse Erkmen'in. 
Evet, evet. Bu ilkinin farkmda degildim, straforla kaplandik- 
tan sonra fark ettim icinde Ayse Erkmen'in isinin oldugunu, 
o yiizden ilginc, zaten saninm ilgi ccekmesinin nedeni de 
o, yani bir sekilde Ayse Erkmen goriinmez olmak istiyor, 
Kemal Onsoy'sa tarn tersini ima ediyor, en son da ise bu hale 
geliyor. Bu siirec hosuma gittigi icin anlatiyorum bunu, bir 
degisim icinde en azindan, diyalektik bir havasi var. Ilk once 
olumlama, sonra Kemal Onsoy olumsuzluyor, yada tam ter- 
si, en sonunda bu hale geliyor. Bu da heykelin su anki hali, 
pek goziikmiiyor, uzakta, pankartta da "Bazi seylerin kahci 
oldugunu bilmek giizel" yaziyor. Benim sevmedigim hali bu 




Elmas: What does your brother do? 

Aviation engineer, you know this as well- something famous, 
Ayse Erkmen's statue which burned down. 
Ahmet: That's Kemal Onsoy 's. What is in it, belongs to Ayse 
Erkmen. 

Yes, yes. I wasn't aware of the first. I realized that it was Ayse 
Erkmen's after it was covered with foam. I think it was why I 
found it interesting- Ayse Erkmen wanted to be invisible, Ke- 
mal Onsoy implicated the contrary and it ended up like this. 
I'm telling this because I liked the process- there's a dialectic 
at least in this change. There's first an approval, then it's nega- 
tion by Kemal Onsoy or it's the other way around. And this 
is the final state of the statue. It's not easily seen from the dis- 
tance but on the banner it reads "It's good to know that some 
things are permanent." What I don't like is this final state. 
The reason I'm showing this is that I wish the previous state 
was preserved. And I think it should have been preserved 
like that because it's like going back to the beginning like 
this.. You're erasing the history by trying to remake it. 




97 



son hali, bunu gostermemin nedeni ise keske bundan onceki 
haliyle saklansaydi. Ve o haliyle korunmahydi diye diisii- 
niiyorum, ciinkii bu basa donme gibi bir sey oluyor, tekrar 
yapmaya cahsirken ashnda onun tarihini siliyorsun. Bu da 
Besiktas'taki o iinlii abide, kulak misafiri oldugum bir sey; 
Besiktas'in sanat islerinden sorumlu biirokratlarmdan biri 
konusuyordu, ben arkadan dinledim. Baslanmn bu abide ile 
ilgili nasil dertte oldugundan bahsediyordu, Besiktas'ta cogu 
kisi bunun kalkmasim istiyormus, ama sanatcimn bir anlas- 
masi varmis, 2020'lere kadar felan samrim abidenin kihna 
bile dokunamiyorsun, sanatci itiraz ediyor telif haklari onda. 
En son soyledigi sey biirokratin, caresizlikten olsa gerek fan- 
tezi de olsa: ben bunu bombalatmayi diisiinuyorum gizlice, 
tek kurtulus yolu bu. Burda okunmuyor ama pankartta da 
"Sonuna kadar" yaziyor. 

Bu Martin Mcfly ve kiz arkadasi, arkadaki bozuk saat kulesi- 
ne bakiyolar, Gelecege Doniis filminden bir sahne. Onlerinde 
ki kadin ise bu saat kulesini tamir ettirebilmek icin, 1950' 
lerde yildinm diismesi sonucu duran saat kulesini tamir 
ettirebilmek icin onlardan bagis istiyor ve Mcfly 'a bir brosiir 
veriyor. Mcfly da gecmise gittiginde bu brosiir sayesinde gele- 
cege donme sansi elde ediyor. 

Bu Anri Sala'nm ufku olan ev isimli isi, bunun hakkinda cok 
fazla bir fikrim yok. Bu da Ankara'da nerdeyse ufku olan bir 
ev. Bunun ilginc tarafi icinin posterlerle kaplanmis olmasi, 
yani en azindan baska islevsel bir duruma gecmis olmasi, 
posterler de 4 farkli gruba ait, burdan pek goziikmiiyor ama 
yakin politik goriisleri savunan gruplar, simdi iki secenek var 
diye dusiiniiyorum, ya birbirleriyle olan rekabet yiiziinden 
iist iiste yapistirmislar, ciinkii kocaman bir ev sadece belli 
bolgelerde posterler var, ama sonra biraz daha dikkatli bakil- 
diginda, arkada kalan posterlerin tarihlerinin daha eski oldu- 



And this is that famous monument in Besiktas. It's some- 
thing that I eaves dropped; a bureaucrat responsible for the 
artworks in Besiktas was talking and I was listening. He was 
talking about how they went under the hammer because of 
this monument. Many people in Besiktas wanted the monu- 
ment to be removed but it turns out that the artist has a 
contract; the monument couldn't be touched until something 
like 2020s. The artist also objects since he has the rights... The 
last thing that the bureaucrat was, probably out of despera- 
tion (albeit most likely fictionally) "I'm thinking about get- 
ting this thing bombed, it's the only way out." It can't be read 
from over here but on the banner it reads "Until the end." 




Those are Martin McFly and his girlfriend, looking at the 
broken clock tower; a scene from Back To The Future. The 
woman in front of them is asking for donations to repair the 
clock that was struck by lightning back in 1950s. With this 
brochure, McFly gets the chance to return to the future. 
This is Anri Sala's work titled "House With A Horizon". I 
don't really know much about it. And this is a house in An- 
kara which almost actually has a horizon. Interesting part is 
that its interior is covered with posters so it has a different 
sort of functional use. There are posters of four different 







4 ' 




!1 


gggp 



gunu farkediyorsun. Sonucta ben ona yorumluyorum, gorsel 
kirlilik yaratmak yerine iistiine yapistirmislar. 
Bu Corum'da Hattusas arkeolojik kazilarindan bir goriintii. 
Ucta goriinen yer kent surlannin kahntilari. Deneysel arkeo- 
loji diye bir sey var, arkeologlar bu surlann bir kismini tekrar 
diriltmek, eski yontemlerle yeniden in§a etmek istiyorlar. So- 
nucta topraktan yapilmis kerpic evler. Arastirmalan sonucu 
evleri cok fazla tasvir eden beige de yok, sadece kahntilar var, 
o yiizden imkansiz nerdeyse tekrar yapmaya kalkismak. Ama 
en son bulunan canak comleklerde, siis esyalannda kent 
surlan betimlenmis. Bundan yola cikarak tekrar insa etmeye 
kalkiyolar kent surlannin surda goriinen kirmizi kismini, 
burda da diriltilmis hali. 

Bu Kuzguncuk'un uydudan cekilmis fotografi. Bu benim ev- 
den ise yuriidiigiim istikamet. Haftada bir iki kere yuriirum. 
§imdi su taraf, sahil kismi tamamen yahlarla kapli, yalilan 
sokaktan ayirmak icin de yiiksek tel orgiilii duvarlar var. 




Sahil yolu ile o duvarlar arasinda da yiiriime yeri yaklasik 
50 cm kadar. Su noktalar da cop tenekelerinin oldugu yerler. 
O cop tenekeleri ciktiginda karsina, nerdeyse gecebilecegin 




groups. It's not easily seen from over here but they're groups 
with similar political stances. Now I think there're two 
choices; either they're stuck on top of one another due to a 
competition since there're posters only at certain spots in the 
huge house. But upon closer look, I saw that the posters at 
the back were dated quite early. Eventually, I deduce that they 
stuck the new upon the old to avoid visual pollution. 




■ ■■ J 

This is an image from the archeological digsite in Hattusas, 
Coram. The place on the edge of the image is remains of the 
city walls. There's something called experimental archeol- 
ogy- archeologists want to resurrect and rebuild some parts 
of the wall by historical means. In the end, they're mud-brick 
houses. According to their research, they don't have much 
that describes the houses apart from the remains therefore 
it's almost impossible to rebuild. However the latest digs yield 
some pots that have city walls depicted on them. Starting off 
from that, they raised a part of the city walls as it can be seen 
with red over here. 

This is a satellite image of Kuzguncuk. That is the route 
I walk from home. I walk twice a week. Now, this side is 



99 



yer kalmryor, 25 cm e felan diisiiyor. 3-4 defa karsilastigim 
birsey, o cop tenekelerinin etrafindaki hayvanlarla karsilas- 
diginda kacacak yerleri kalmadigindan refleks olarak sicri- 
yorlar olduklan yerde, yiiz ifadesi daha saskin oluyor tabi bu 
temsili bir fotograf, sonra sicradiklan yere geri du^iiyorlar 
tabi.. 




Bu diinyanm uzaydan cekilmis bir fotografi, arkadasimin iki 
sene once anlattigi bir sey var, yercekimine farkh sekillerde 
karsi koyan hayvanlan acaba uzaya biraksak nasil davramrlar 
diye. Mesela ilki kustu, uzayda ucabilir mi, orda kanat cirp- 
masimn bir anlami olur mu. Ikincisi yilandi, yercekimiyle 
surtiinerek ba§eden bir hayvan, ucunciisii fildi, yercekimine 
en cok direnen hayvanlardan biri, agirhgini kullanarak aslan- 
lari bile bir hamlede oldiirebiliyor. Neyse bunlar cok onemli 
degil, fakaf birkac ay sonra bunu bir arkadasima anlattim 
Amsterdam'da, o da sanatci, bundan 1-2 ay sonra sergisini 
gordiim. Bu kiz daha cok ucma kavrami ile ilgileniyor, me- 
sela cizimlerini balonlara baglar. sonra atmosfere birakir, 
bu tarz seyler. Sergisinde de duvara sunu yazmisti, "ku^lar 
uzayda nasil ucar?" Bu Mayakovski nin siir nasil yazihr adh 
kitabi. Mayakovski bunun bir bolumiinde Mavi Pantalonlu 
Bulut siirini nasil yazdigini anlatir. Ashnda bir kizarkadasim 



completely covered with manors and there wired fences that 
separate them from the street. The walking path is approxi- 
mately 50 centimeters wide. Those points stand for trash 
cans. When you run into one of those, there's no more room 
to walk by, reducing the space to 25 cms. There's something I 
came across several times; since there's no place to run for an 
animal that you run into, they jump where they are by reflex. 
Their expression is a bit more surprised. This, of course, is a 
representative image. They also fall back down to wherever 
they were. 

This is an image of Earth shot from space. There's something 
a friend told me a couple of years ago, about animals that re- 
sist gravity with different ways, being released into space. 




First, it was the bird; could it fly in outer space? Would it 
matter to flap wings? Then it was the snake; an animal deal- 
ing with gravity by crawling. The third one was the elephant; 
one of the beasts that resisted gravity the most. It can kill 
a lion with a single move. Anyway, these are not really im- 
portant but a few months after that I told these to a friend 
in Amsterdam. She was into the concept of flight, like, she 
hangs her sketches to balloons and sets them off, stuff like 
that. In her exhibition, on the wall, it read: "How do birds 
fly in outer space?" This is Mayakovski's book about how 
to compose poems. In one chapter Mayakovski tells how 
he wrote the poem titled "The Cloud In Trousers". He first 
thinks about it to impress a girlfriend and comes up with 



100 



etkilemek icin diisuniir ve mavi pantolonlu bulut dizesi ak- 
hna gelir. Biraz diisuniir eder, fakat bulustuklan zaman sciy- 
lemekten vazgecer. Bunu tavsiyeler seklinde anlatryor, eger 
kiza bunu anlatsaydim, o arkadaslarma anlatacakti, onlarda 
baskalarma anlatacakti ve bu sekilde yayilacagi icin o siiri 
yazmamin anlami kalmayacakti gibi bir seyler sciyliiyor Ma- 
yakovski. Bu Winona Ryder, Beter Bocek filminden bir sah- 
nede. Bu maket evdeki Beter Bocek ile konusuyor, Beter Bo- 
cek normal yasayanlarm diinyasina gecmeye cahsir, Winona 
ise tarn tersi cibiir diinyaya gitmek ister. Beter Bocek karsiya 
gecmek icin Ryder'a, ismini iic kere soylemesi gerektigini an- 
latir. Ryder ismini sorar. Beter Bocek soyleyemem der. Ryder 
niye diye sorar. Beter Bocek te simdi ismimi sana soylersem 
sen arkadaslarma anlatirsin, onlar da kendi arkadaslarma 
anlatir, sonunda kendimi ahsveris merkezi acihslarmda imza 
dagitirken bulurum, yasamim tarn bir cehenneme doner, 
inan bana der. Ama ismini farkli sekilde anlatmaya cahsir, 
sesli sinema ile. Bu bocek, bu da meyve suyu, yani bocek 
suyu, bu biraz sacma oldu tabi... 




m 

I Kan 
fflCJIi 
CTHl 



a cloud in trousers. After some pondering, he decides not 
to say it out loud when they meet. He recounts these as ad- 
vices; as in if he said that to his girlfriend, then she would 
tell her friends and they would tell that their friends and so 
on, eventually rendering the act of writing irrelevant. This is 
a scene from Beetlejuice, with Winona Ryder. In the scene, 
she speaks with Bettlejuice in the model house. Beetlejuice 
wants to cross over to the real world whereas Ryder wants to 
cross over to the other world. Beetlejuice tells Ryder that for 
him to cross over, she has to say his name three times. Ryder 
asks his name, Beetlejuice says he cannot tell. Ryder asks why 
and Beetlejuice says that if he tells her, she will tell friends,, 
they will tell their friends, then he'd find himself in shopping 
malls, signing autographs and that his life would turn into 
hell, urging her to believe him. But he tries to tell his name 
with gestures. This is a beetle, this is the juice... this was a bit 
weird I guess... 



r 




Tranlated by M. Emir Uslu 



102 




Vahit Tuna 

Sine Waves of My Memory I 
Bellegimin Siniizoidi 




KRiZSiZ ELE$TiRi: 
ELE$TlRlSlZ KRiZ 



BORIS BUDEN 



Gunumuzde, sanat alaninda neden kurumsal elestiriden bahsediyoruz? Bunun yaniti 
cok basit: Cunku biz (hala) sanatin elestirel bir potansiyel tasidigini dusunuyoruz. Tabii 
ki burada yalnizca sanat elestirisinden bahsetmiyoruz. Bunun otesinde, biz, - sana- 
tin kendi sinirlannin dismda, dunyayi veyasami elestirme ve hatta bunu yaparak her 
ikisini de degistirme yetisinden bahsediyoruz. Bu durum bir cesit ozelestiriyi, daha acik 
olmakgerekirse, elestirel ozdusunumselligi icinde barindinr. Elestirel ozdusunumsellik 
ise, sanattan bekledigimiz-ya da en azmdan beklemeye aliskin oldugumuz sekilde -, 
sanatin meydana gelme kosullanndan elestirel bir sekilde haberdar olmaktir. Bu da 
genellikle sanatin uretim kosullanndan haberdar olmak anlamma gelir. 

Sanat yapitmm meydana gelme ve uretim kosullarma dair elestirel bir bilince sahip 
olmak, sirasiyla, modern elestirinin iki alanina isaret eder: teorik ve pratik siyasal alan. 
Bilgimizin varolma kosullarma dair ilk soruyu ortaya atan ve bu soruyu elestirinin bir 
eylemi olarak acikca kavrayan kisi Kant'di. Bu noktadan baktigimizda, modern dusun- 
cenin, ya modern olmadigini ya da ozelestirel oldugunu soyleyebiliriz. 

Fakat biz burada modern elestirinin teorik cizgisini takip etmeyecegiz. Onun yerine, 
pratik ve siyasal elestirinin en Cist formu olan ve basitce radikal degisim istegi, kisaca, 



106 



devrim talebi olorak tanimlanabilecek, pratik ve siyasal anlam uzerine yogunlasacagiz. 
Fransiz Devrimi, sadece mutlakiyetci sistemi elestiren burjuvalar tarafindan hazirlan- 
mami§ti. Aslinda burjuvalann etkisi neredeyse onemsizdi cunku asil devrimi etkileyen 
sey eyleme donusen elestiriydi. Elestirinin en uc eylemi olarak devrim fikri, en radikal 
anlatimini Marksist teorik ve politik kavramlarda buldu. Hatirlamak gerekirse: gene 
Marks kendi devrimci felsefesine acikca "var olan her seyin elestirisi" adini verdi. Marks 
burada, bugun cok basite indirgenmis haliyle ekonomi alani olarak algiladigimiz, 
sosyal yasamm en temelini "yonlendiren" madde u red mi veyeniden uretim anlamiyla, 
radikal elestiriyi kastetmekteydi. 

Elestiri bu haliyle modernitenin temel niteliklerinden biri haline geldi. Neredeyse iki 
yuzyil boyunca, ahlaki oldugu kadar felsefi sorunlarda da; sanatta oldugu kadar politi- 
ka ve sosyal yasamda da, modern olmak basitce elestirel olmak an lam ma gelmekteydi. 

Fakat modern elestiriyi uzun birzaman boyunca tamamlamis olan baska bir kavram 
daha var; khz kavrami. Ben, khz ve elestirinin temelde ortak bir noktaya, gercek bir ilis- 
kiye sahip olduguna, hatta dahasi bu iki kavram arasinda modern deneyime dayali bir 
etkilesim olduguna inaniyorum. Dolayisiyla, elestiri, bir krizin farkmdaligina isareteder. 
Ya da bunun tarn tersi olur: bir krizin teshisi, elestirinin gerekliligini gostehr. 

Aslina bakilirsa khz ve elestiri, tarihsel sahneye ayni anda gelmemistir. Elestiri, On 
sekizinci Yuzyil aydinlanmasinm uretimidir ve politika He ahlak aynmi uzerinden gelis- 
mistir. Dahasi, elestiri, modern zaman boyunca dehnlesmis veyasammi surdurmustur. 
Gelisen burjuva sinifinin kendini (ilgi alanlanni ve degerlerini) en yuksek karar mercii 
gibi gostermesi ve bu yolla mutlak siyasi mucadeleler icin kendine gereken giiveni ve 
vicdani gelistirmesi, yalnizca elestiri sureci He gerceklesmistir. Bu elestiri - geleneksel 
bilgi, dini inanclar ve estetik degerlerin elestirisi- var olan tuzel ve politik gerceklik He 
nihayetindezihnin kendine yonelik elestirisini kapsar. Bu baglamda, modern felsefe ve 
tarihin gelismesinde, sanat ve edebiyat elestirisinin rolunu kucumsememek gerekir. 
zamanlarda aydmlar sinifi icinde "eski" ve "yeni" arasmdaki uyusmazligm farkmda olan 
ve gecmisi gelecekten ayirmaya yetkili olan, yeni bir anlayis bicimi gelistiren sey sanat 
ve edebiyat elestirisi olmustur. 

Fakat ayni zamanda, bu donemin sonunda, yaklasmakta olan bir krizin farkma da 
vanlmistir: "Nous approchons de I'etat de crise et du siecle des revolutions," diye yazar 
Rousseau. Aydinlanmaci dusunurler icin devrim sozcugu, tarihsel ilerleme He esanlamli 



iken ve devrim dogal bir fenomen gibi gerceklesmekteyken, Rousseau bunun, giiven- 
sizlik, dagilma, kaos, yeni uyusmazliklar vs. durumlanni beraberinde getiren, krizin en 
nihai sonu oldugunu anlar. Krizle baglantili olarak, elestiri de ozgun naifligini ve sozde 
masumiyetini yitirir. §imdiden sonra, khz ve elestiri, beklenen tarihsel sureci arkasindan 
suruklemektense, ic savas ve devrimlerin modern zamanini sekillendirmek ve genelde 
makul kontrolun otesinde olan kaotik bozulmalara ve belirsizce gerileyen surece ne- 
den olmak iizere birlikte hareket ederler. Khz ve elestiri arasmdaki etkilesim, sonradan, 
aydinlanmanm diyalektikleri olarak nitelendirilmis olan temel ozellikleridir. 

Bu sure icinde, "eski" ve "yeni" arasmdaki farkliligi ve iliskiyi aciklayan, iki nosyonun 
karsilikli etkilesimi, modernist ilerlemenin bir cesit teknik terimine donusmustur. Bir 
seyin krize girdigini soylemek her seyin otesinde onun eskidigi, artik var olma hakkmi 
yitirdigi ve yerine biryenisinin gelmesi gerektigi anlamma gelir. Elestiri ise, eskinin ca- 
bucak olmesine veyeninin kolayca dogmasma yardim eden bu yargmm eyleme donus- 
mesinden baska bir sey degildir. 

Bu durum ayni zamanda, khz ve elestirinin diyalektik formlarmi takip eden modern 
sanatin gelisimi icin de gecerlidir. Ornegin buradan sunu cikarmak mumkundur: rea- 
lizm, romantizm krizine elestirel bir tepki ortaya koymustur veya soyut, potansiyelini 
tuketmis ve dolayisiyla krize girmis olan figuratif sanatin bir elestirisidir. Ayni zamanda 
sanat ve "tekduze gerceklik" arasmdaki gerilim de khz ve elestirinin diyalektikleri He 
yorumlanmaktadir. Dolayisiyla modern sanat - ozellikle romantizmde - otantikligini ve 
anlammi yitirmis, genellikle siradan yasamm elestirisi olarak anlasilan bir cesit krize mi 
girmistir? 

§imdi, soz konusu elestiri ve krizin diyalektiginin, gunumuzde hala bir anlami olup 
olmadigi sorusuna geri donelim. 

Birkac ay once Avusturya'da, Post - Komunist Dogu Avrupa'da Sanatsal Avangardm 
Mirasi baslikli bir munazara yuruttugum sirada, bu soruyu direkt olarak sorma firsati 
buldum. 

Orada, avangardm hala modern sanat elestirisinin en radikal vakasi oldugunu 
soyledigimde herkesin bana katilmasmi umuyordum. Burada elestiriyi, hem zamanmin 
geleneksel sanatmm elestirisi, hem de, genisce farkma varilan ve kabullenilen kendi 
zamanmin krizinde var olan gercekligin elestirisi anlammda kullandim. Bes saatlik bir 
tartismm sonucunda ortaya cikan karar, gunumuzde avangart sanatin elestirel dene- 



108 



yiminin, en azindan Dogu Avrupa'da yararsiz olduguydu. Tartismanin katilimcilan co- 
gunlukla, Orta ve Dogu Avrupa'dan, Cek Cumhuriyeti, Slovakya, Macaristan, Sirbiston 
Romanya ve ayni zamanda Turkiye'den gene sanatcilardi. Gercekte, avangardin elesti- 
rel tutumunun, gunumuzde hala bir anlami olduguna inanan ve konuyu ciddiye alan 
tek katilimci Turkiye'dendi. Avangart sorusuna en acik ve radikal yaklasan katilimci ise 
Cek Cumhuriyeti'ndendi ve avangart deneyimin aslinda bir nesil problemi oldugunu 
savunmaktaydi. Ona gore, avangartta hala cozulmesi gereken sorunlar olduguna 
inanan ve bu soruyla ilgilenen killer, yasca daha buyuk sanatci ve sanat tarihcileriydi. 
Onun inancina gore, gene nesil, sanatin politik anlaminin veya politik ve estetik iliski- 
lerinin coktan otesine gecmisti. Verdigi ornege gore, eski nesil hala Leni Riefenstahl'in 
politik anlamini dikkate alip almamayi hararetle tartismaktaydi. Fakat gene nesil icin 
bu artik onemsizdi. Onlar, sanatcinin sanatmi, - tabiri caizse, politik biryan anlami 
olmaksizin direkt olarak kavramakta, bu sanati, oldugu gibi - saf estetik degerlerinde 
saf sanat olarak - gormekteydiler. Dogrusu bu insanlan ve onlarin ilgi alanlanni bildi- 
gimden vezaten avangartla He ilgilenmeyeceklerini dusundugumden, bu konu uzerine 
gitmedim. Fakat bu noktada daha ilginc buldugum baska bir konu vardi. Katihmcilar 
"Transit - Project" olarak adlandinlan projenin uyeleriydi. Soz konusu proje, birkacyil 
once, bir Avusturya bankasi tarafindan Dogu Avrupa'daki sanata yardim amaciyla 
baslatilan bir projeydi ve her katilimci geldigi ulkenin temsilcisi olarak bu projede yer 
almaktaydi. Bu bankanin Dogu Avrupa'da oldukcayuklu miktarlarda paralar kazandi- 
gini biliyordum. Dolayisiyla bankanin bu katilimcilara sanatsal uretimleri icin mi, yoksa 
icinde bulunulan kosullarda sanat ve sanata destegin oynadigi rolden dolayi mi para 
verildigi konusunda fikirleri olup olmadigini merak etmekteydim. 

Oteyandan, Viyana'da yayinlanan Der Standard adli gazetede cikan makale de 
beni bu konuda harekete gecirmisti. Makale, Dogu Avrupadaki Avusturya bankalan 
ve sigorta sirketlerinin karlanyla ilgiliydi. Burada, ornegin General! Holding Vienna'nin 
(bir sigorta sirketi) is hacmi olarak tanimlanan seyin iice katlandigi gorunuyordu. Ayni 
yilda, yillik net kazanc ise ikiye katlanmisti. Peki, bu nasil mumkun oluyordu? Yanit, ayni 
makalede baslikta veriliyordu: "Buyume Makinesi Dogu Avrupa". Boylesi buyuk kazanc- 
lar elde etmeleri, holdingin - ayni zamanda Avusturya bankalannin da - dogudaki 
genislemesiyle oldukca baglantili. 

Munazarada katilimcilann bu konuyu biraz daha irdelemelerini istedim. Ya da daha 



acik bir sekilde konusursak, bir cesit elestiriyi provoke etmeye calistim. Ne yazik ki bu 
sonuc vermedi. Kimse sanatmin olusum kosullanni, ekonomik, materyalist durumunu 
soz etmeye deger bulmadi. 

Oyle gozukuyor ki, post-komunist Avrupa'da avangardin mirasi sonunda olmus. 
Dahasi, gene sanatcilar arasinda kurumsal elestiriye karsi herhangi bir ilgi de yok. Bu, 
yukanda bahsettigimiz ozelestiriye, yani sanatcilann kendi sanatlannm gerceklesebil- 
me ve uretilebilme kosullannin elestirisine karsi ilgisiz olmalan anlamma da geliyor. 

Bunun nedeni elbette ki cok acik: bizim avangart elestiri algimiz esas olarak 
Komunizm'in tarihsel deneyimi He gercevelenmis. Bu da, avangart deneyimini, radikal 
elestiride oldugu gibi, post-komunist (post-totaliter, post-ideolojik) elestiri perspekti- 
finde gordugumuz anlamma gelir. Soz konusu durum ise, bunun gecmisimize ait bir 
fenomen oldugunu ve Fukuyama'nm nosyonu He insanligm ideolojikevriminin altse- 
viyesinde olan, Cek bir meslektasin sozleriyle, daha eski nesil He baglantili, erya da gee 
olup gidecek bir sey bir problem oldugunu varsaymaktir. 

Fakat bu noktada "imkansiz" bir soru ortaya atayim: komunizm gercekten oldu 
mul Bildigim kadanyla, komunizm yalnizca hayatta olmakla kalmiyor, bazi alanlarda 
kapitalizme karsi ustunlugunu de kanitliyor. Evet, burada gercekten bugunun Cin'inden 
soz ediyorum. (Liitfen bana bunun gercek komunizm olmadigini soylemeyin. Hicbir 
zaman gercek komunizm olmadi. Cogunlukla guvenilir, hakiki bir piyasa ekonomisine 
sahip olmadigi nedeniyle goz ardi edilen Yugoslav komunizminin perspektifinden cok 
iyi hatirliyorum ki, Sovyet ve butun Dogu-blogu komunizmi bir cesit devlet-kapitalizmi 
olarak tanimlanmaktaydi.) 

Peki, neden biz radikal elestiri ve ozelestiriyi, acik bir sekilde batili yandaslanndan cok 
daha basanli olmus Cin komunistlerinden ogrenmiyoruz? 

Fakat Cin komunizminin en yiiksek otoritesine, elestiri ve ozelestirinin gercek anla- 
mini sormadan once, size bir tarihsel gercegi hatirlatayim: On dokuzuncu veyirminci 
yuzyilm tarihsel gercekliginde komunist devrim fikri, komunist hareket formunda - 
komunist politik partilerin formunda - kendisi bir kurum haline geldi. Bir ku rum olarak, 
komunist hareket, sozumona ozelestiri denen kendi elestiri kurumunu da gelistirdi. Bu 
durum tarihte cok onemli bir ml oynadi: devrim sel hareketin kendini bilen bireyini ve 
ardindan da sosyalist toplumu bilgilendirmek. 

Baskan Mao'ya gore, ozelestirinin dikkatlice ve titizlikle uygulanmasi, komunist par- 



110 



tiyi diger partilerden ayiran en onemli ozelliklerden biriydi. Ondan biralinti yapayim: 
"Soyledigimiz gibi, eger bir odayi duzenli olarak supurmezsek, o oda tozlanir, yuzumu- 
zu duzenli olarak yikamazsak, yuzumuz kirlenir. Yoldaslanmizin zihinleri ve Parti'mizin 
calismasi da tozlanabilir ve supurulmeye veyikanmaya ihtiyaci vardir." Dolayisiyla 
Mao icin ozelestiri "(. . .)yoldaslanmizin zihinlerini ve Parti'mizin vucudunu kirleten her 
turlu politik tozu ve mikrobu onlemenin en etkili yolu"dur. Bugun bu bize, cocukca bir 
peri masali gibi cok komik geliyor, fakat Mao'nun elestiri kavrammdaki cok can alia 
bir celiskiye dikkat cekmek istiyorum: bunun kapitalizmin kriziyleya da oylesi bir kriz- 
le hicbir ilgisi yok. Her ne kadar Mao komunist ozelestiriyi Marksizm - Leninizm'in en 
onemli silahi olarak tanimlasa da, onu Marksizm - Leninizm'in ideolojik prensipleriyle 
dogrulamiyor. Diger yanda Mao'nun ozelestiri tanimi tamamen ideolojisiz, basitce 
siradan sagduyunun urunu gibi gorunuyor: temizyuz kirlisinden iyidir, temizoda tozlu 
bir odadan iyidir, mikroplar sagliga zararhdir vs. 

Peki, bu siradanlastirma nedenl Ve daha da onemlisi, kriz nerede, nereye gitti, neden 
aniden yok oldu? Neden komunist elestirinin bu belirli formu - ozelestiri, neden bir tiir 
krizle His kilendirilm iyo r? 

Komunist hareket gorunumundeki kapitalizm krizi ve bu krizin elestirisi, aralannda 
bir aynm yapmanin imkansizlastigi tek bir kuruma donustu. Diger bir deyisle, tarn 
olarak birbirine kansarak ikisi de bir digerinin dissalligi oldular. Komunist hareket icin 
kapitalizm krizi birdenbire orada, kurumunun disindaydi. Ama kapitalizm icin de, krizin 
elestirisi, yalnizca kendi disansindan geliyormus gibi kavranabilirdi. 

Sonucta komunistler kendilerini kapitalist krizin bir parcasi olarak goremediler ve 
dolayisiyla elestiri araciligi He onu cozmekyerine, krizi daha surdurulebilir veya basitce 
kalici kilarak, kapitalist krizi daha da guclu, daha etkin yapmakla son buldular. 

Problem aslinda, komunizmin ve kapitalizmin ya da kriz olarak kapitalizmin ve onun 
elestirisi olarak komunizmin, radikal bicimde birbirini reddetme noktasma gelmemesiy- 
di. Birbirlerini reddetmek biryana dursun, tarn tersi, birbirlerineyardim etmekteydiler. 

Bolsevik Rusya'ya ic savasin yikintilanni onarmak icin yardim edenin tarn da Ameri- 
kan kapitali oldugunu neden unutalim? Sanatin bu hikayedeki rolunu neden unuta- 
lim? Sovyetler, cogunlugu on dokuzuncu yuzyil Fransizyagliboya tablolan olan, cok 
onemli cok degerli sanatyapitlanni Birlesik Devletler'deki endustriyel teknolojiyle degis 
tokusyapti. Gunumuzun liberal jargonunda buna kusursuz karsilikli kazanc denir. Bir 



taraf anlamsiz ve tarihsel acidan eski buldugu burjuva sanattan kurtulurken, diger ta- 
raf piyasasmi genisletip, is gucCinu ilerletiyor ve sosyal durumu sabitliyor, isci smifini ya- 
tistinyor - krizi onluyordu. Bu mumkun degildi cunku pek cok ahmak anti-komunistin 
bugunlerde inandigi gibi Bolseviklersahip olduklan sanatyapitlannin gercek degerini 
bilmeyen likely aratiklardi. Bu gorusun aksine, Bolsevikler, tarn da kapitalist mantikla 
bu sanatyapitlannin piyasa degerini cok iyi biliyorlardi. Bu yapitlara yalnizca bir meta 
olarak yaklastilar. Bu iseancak sanatyapitlannin degerleri dusuruldukten, sanatyapit- 
lan, gercekci sanat elestirisi sonucunda sanatsal degerlerini yitirdikten sonra mumkun 
oldu. Aslinda bu gercekte, Fransiz tablolarmi radikal bir bicimde elestiren, onlann sa- 
natsal degerini yok eden ve bugun saf sanat tarihi olarak anladigimiz, geleneksel sanat 
elestirisini beyan eden avangart sanatti. 

Dahasi, fabrikalara ve calisan kitlelere asil ihtiyac duyan, topladigi yapitlan umur- 
samadigi izleyicilere sunan ve bunlardan tiksinen muzeler ve depolar degil, sanatsal 
prensipler ve sanatsal degerler ureten avangart sanatti. Bu fabrikalan ve calisan sinifi 
gerektiginde kim saglayabilirdi? - Kapitalizmin ta kendisi olan Amerikan endustriyel 
teknolojisi. 

Bu, kapitalizm He sanatin kriz ve elestirisinin, elbette ki tumuyle kapitalist bir or- 
tamda, -normallesme! uretmek icin birlikte basanyla calisabileceginin mukemmel bir 
omegidir. 

Kapitalizm ve komunizmin bir uyum icinde isledigine dair en iyi ornek ise Qn'in gii- 
numuzdeki durumudur. Bu durum - gercegi kriz ve elestirinin diyalektik diline cevirirsek 
- kapitalizmin kurumsal elestirisine dair bir kuraldir. Kapitalist krizin devammi saglayan 
ise Qn komunist partisidir. Bunu, yalnizca dunyanm en buyuk piyasasmi, kuresel ortak 
kapitale acarak degil, ayni zamanda oldukca disiplinli ve ucuz is gucu saglayarak da 
yapar. 

Bircogunun inancina gore, gunumuzun Qnli komunistleri, komunist dusuncenin 
prensiplerine ihanet ederek kapitalizm! elestirmeyi birakmis ve onu gelistirmeye basla- 
mislardir. Dusunulenin tersine, onlar Mao'ya ihanet etmemisler, onun gercek mirasina 
birebir bagli kalmislardir. 

Baskan'in (Mao) ozelestirinin gerekliliklerinden bahseden ve bireysel ozveriyi savu- 
nan cumlelerinden, tekrar bir alinti yapayim: "Biz, Qnli Komunistler olarak, (. . .) hicbir 
bireysel ozveri karsismda yilmayiz ve her durumda bu amac ugruna canimizi vermeye 



hazinz, insanlann ihtiyaclanni karsilamayan herhangi bir fikir, bakis agisi, dusunce 
veya metodu bertarafetmeye karsi kayitsiz kalmamiz mumkun mudur? Siyasi toz ve 
mikroplarm, temizyuzlerimizi kirletmelerine veyayararli organizmalanmizi yemelerine 
izin verir miyiz? (. . .) bu durumdo bireysel isteklerin one cikmasi mumkun mudur (...) 
feda edemeyecegimiz veya bertaraf edemeyecegimiz herhongi bir hata olabilir mi?" 

Yalnizca hatirlayin: Ozelestiri kurumu ve bireysel fedakarlik olmasa, meshurStalinci 
mahkeme parodileri var olamazdi. Bugunlerde cok iyi bilindigi uzere onlar, kamulas- 
tirmanin feci sonuclar getirmeye basladigi, Sovyet toplumunun krizde oldugu yillar 
olan, otuzlann basinda ortaya konuyorlardi. Bu krizi, disandan yikimin biretkisi, muh- 
birve ajanlann bir isi gibi gostererek, dislayan seyozelestiriydi. Dolayisiyla boylelikle, 
kurumun, Sovyet toplumunun saglikli organizmalanni yiyen, turn o "mikrop ve para- 
zitlerden" kurtulmasi gereksinimi tamamen anlasilabilir oluyordu. Komiinistdzeles- 
tiri kiligindaki elestiri, gercek krizi ve onun husumetlerini aciga vurmak ve mudahale 
etmek icin degil (ki bu klasik Morksist biryaklasim olurdu) , fakat tarn tersine onu kalici 
kilmak ve krizi bir cesit normallestirmeye cevirmek icin kullanilmaktaydifya da suiisti- 
mal edilmekteydi). 

Aslinda gunumuz icin bu tipik bir durum: Yani ne icinde bulundugumuz zamani bir 
kriz gibi deneyimliyoruz, ne de elestiri yapmaya niyetlenen bireyler olmaya calisiyoruz. 

Klasik modern izm zamaninda, kriz her za man bir kin I man in ve bu km I man in bir 
elestirisinin olasiligi olarak deneyimlenmekteydi. 

Bugun artik boylesi bir deneyim yasamamiz kesinlikle imkansiz. Kriz ve elestiri arasm- 
daki etkilesime dair herhangi bir deneyim yok. 

Giorgio Agamben'in uyansi basitce goz ardi edilemez - zamanimizin en buyuk de- 
neyimi, zamandan herhangi bir deneyim elde edemeyecegimiz gercegidir. Sonuc ise, 
krizi gormeyen bir elestiri ve elestiriyi duymayan kalici bir krizdir. Yani kisaca ozetlemek 
gerekirse durum sudur - mukemmel bir uyumi 



Literatiir: 

Mao: internets bakmiz. 

Rsinhart Koselleck, "Kritik und Krise", Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1979. 



Turkge (^eviri: Erden Kosova - Pinar Oner 




CRITICISM WITHOUT CRISIS: 
CRISIS WITHOUT CRITICISM 



BORIS BUDEN 



Why do we talk today about institutional critique in the field of art? The answer is very 
simple: Because we (still) believe that art is intrinsically equipped with the power of 
criticism. Of course, we don't simply mean art-criticism here but somethinq more than 
that, the ability of art to criticise the world and life beyond its own realm, and even, by 
doinq that, to chanqe both. This includes, however, some sort of self-criticism, or more 
precisely, the practice of critical self-reflexivity which means that we also expect of 
art - or at least used to expect - to be critically aware of the conditions of its possibility, 
which usually means, the conditions of its production. 

These two notions - to be aware of the conditions of its possibility, respectively, of the 
conditions of its production - point at two major realms of modern criticism: the theo- 
retical and the practical-political realm. It was Kant who first posed the question about 
the conditions of possibility of our knowledqe and who understood this question 
explicitly as an act of criticism. Trom that point on we may say that modern reflection 
is either critical - in this self-reflexive way - or it is not modern. 

But we are not qoinq to follow here this theoretical line of modern criticism. We will 
concentrate instead on its practical and political meaninq, which can be simply de- 



116 



scribed as a will for radical change, in short, the claim for revolution, which is the ulti- 
mate form of practical and political criticism. French Revolution was not only prepared 
through the bourgeois criticism of the absolutist state. It was nothing but this criticism 
in actu, its last word turned into political action. The idea of revolution as an ultimate 
act of criticism has found its most radical expression in Marxist theoretical and politi- 
cal concepts. Just to remember: young Marx called his own revolutionary philosophy 
explicitly "the critigue of everything existing". He meant this in the most radical sense as 
a criticism that "operates" in the very basement of social life, that is, in the realm of its 
material production and reproduction, something we understand today, guite simpli- 
fied, as the realm of economy. 

In this way criticism has become one of the essential gualities of Modernity. For al- 
most two centuries to be modern meant simply to be critical: in philosophy as much as 
in moral guestions; in politics and social life as much as in art. 

But there is also another concept, which - as a sort of its complement - has accom- 
panied for a long time the idea and practice of modern criticism, the concept of crisis. 
A believe that both, crisis and criticism, have something in common, that there is an 
authentic relation, or better, an interaction between them, egually belongs to the mod- 
ern experience. Therefore, an act of criticism almost necessarily implies the awareness 
of a crisis and vice versa: a diagnosis of crises implies the necessity of criticism. 

Actually criticism and crisis didn't enter the historical scene at the same time. Criti- 
cism is the child of the 18th century enlightenment. It was born and developed out of 
the separation between politics and morality, a separation that criticism has deepened 
and kept alive all along the modern age. It was only through the process of criticism 
- the criticism of all forms of traditional knowledge, religious believes and aesthetic 
values, the criticism of existing juridical and political reality and finally the criticism of 
the mind itself- that the growing bourgeois class could impose itself (its own interests 
and values) as the highest instance of judgement and in that way develop the self- 
confidence and self-conscience it needed for the decisive political struggles to come. 
In this context one shouldn't underestimate the role of art and literary criticism espe- 
cially in the development of the modern philosophy of history. It was precisely art and 
literary criticism that produced at that time among the intelligentsia the awareness 
of a contradiction between the "old" and the "modern" and in that way shaped a new 



understanding of time capable of differentiating the future from the past. 

But at the end of this period arises also the awareness of the approaching crisis: 
"Nous approchons de I'etatde crise et du siecle des revolutions," writes Rousseau. 
Whereas for the thinkers of enlightenment revolution is a synonym for an inevitable 
historical progress, which occurs necessarily as a sort of natural phenomenon Rous- 
seau understands it as the ultimate expression of crisis, which brings about the state 
of insecurity, dissolution, chaos, new contradictions, etc. In connection with the crisis 
- which it has prepared and initiated - criticism loses its original naivety and its alleged 
innocence. From now on criticism and crisis go together shaping the modern age of 
civil wars and revolutions, which instead of bringing about the expected historical 
progress, cause chaotic dissolutions and obscure regressive processes, often completely 
beyond rational control. The interaction between criticism and crisis is one of the major 
gualities of what later has been conceptualized as the dialectics of enlightenment. 

In the meantime the interplay of both notions became a sort of terminus technicus 
of modernist progress introducing a difference - and simultaneously a relation - be- 
tween "old" and "new". To say that something has come into crisis meant above all to 
say that it has become old, that is, that it has lost its right to exist and therefore should 
be replaced by something new. Criticism is nothing but the act of this judgement, 
which helps the old to die guickly and the new to be born easily. 

This also applies to the development of modern art, which too follows the dialectics 
of criticism and crisis of its forms. So we understand for instance realism as a critical 
reaction to the crisis of romanticism, or the idea of abstract art as a critigue of figura- 
tive art, which has exhausted its potential and therefore came into crisis. Also the ten- 
sion between art and "prosaic reality" was interpreted through the dialectics of crisis 
and criticism. So was modern art -especially in romanticism - often understood as a 
criticism of ordinary life, of ordinariness as such, which means, of a life that had lost its 
authenticity or its meaning - that is, a life that had also entered some sort of crisis. 

Let us now go back to the guestion, whether this dialectics of criticism and crisis still 
makes some sense to us today. 

A few months ago in Austria I had an opportunity to ask directly this guestion. I 
moderated a discussion, whose topic was the legacy of the artistic avant-garde today 
in the post-communist Eastern Europe. 



118 



I hoped everybody would agree when I said that the avant-garde is still the most 
radical case of modernist art criticism - both in terms of a criticism of traditional art 
of its time and in terms of a criticism of existing reality precisely in the moment of its - 
widely recognized and acknowledged - crisis. 

After 5 hours of debate the conclusion was, that there is no use whatsoever of the 
critical experience of avant-garde art today at least not in Eastern Europe. 

The participants in the discussion were mostly younger artists from Central and 
South Eastern Europe, Czegue Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Romania, but also 
Turkey. Actually only the representative of Turkey was prepared to take the topic seri- 
ously and believed that the critical stance of the avant-garde still makes some sense to 
us today. 

The most open and most radical in his refusal of the avant-garde guestion was the 
representative of the Czegue Republic. He argued that the avant-garde experience is 
actually a problem of generations. For him, it is an older generation of artists and art 
historians which still sees some challenge in the avant-garde and is bothered by this 
guestion. The younger generation, as he believes, is already beyond the problem of the 
political meaning of art, or relations between politics and aesthetics. The old genera- 
tion, he gave an example, still discusses vehemently whether we should consider the 
political meaning ofLeni Riefenstahl's work or not. For the young generation, on the 
contrary, this simply doesn't matter any more. They have so to say a direct insight into 
her art without any political connotations. They see it as what it really is - a pure art in 
its pure aesthetic value and meaning. 

In fact I was not interested at all in this topic, since I know these people and their 
interests, so I didn't actually expect them to be really interested in the avant-garde. 

However, there was another issue I found much more interesting there. 

The participants were actually all members of the so-called Transit-Project. This is 
a project that was launched a few years ago by an Austrian bank with the purpose to 
help art in Eastern Europe. The participants were representatives of the project in their 
countries. Since I know that this particular bank has earned an enormous amount of 
money in Eastern Europe, I was curious whether they would have any opinion on that 
fact, that is, on the way they are paid for their artistic work, or on the role of art and art 
funding under these circumstances. 



I was also motivated by an article, which was published those days in the Viennese 
daily newspaper Der Standard. It was an article about the profits of Austrian banks 
and insurance companies in Eastern Europe. One could read there for instance that the 
result of the so-called business activity of the General! Holding Vienna (an insurance 
company) had tripled the year before. The annual net profit had doubled in the same 
year. One can only wonder how this had been possible? The answer was given in the 
same article by the subtitle: "The growth engine Eastern Europe". It is due to the eastern 
expansion of the holding - and Austrian banks too - that they can make such profits. 

I wanted the participants to tackle somehow this issue, or speaking more openly, I 
wanted to provoke some sort of criticism. Unfortunately, it didn't work. Nobody found 
the economic, material conditions of their art making worth mentioning. 

It seems that the critical legacy of the avant-garde in post-communist Europe is 
finally dead. Moreover, it also seems that there is no authentic interest among young 
artists in institutional criticism, that is, in what we have called above self-criticism: 
critical awareness of the conditions of the possibility of their art, which means, of the 
conditions of its production. 

The reason for this is obvious: our perception of avant-garde criticism is essentially 
framed by the historical experience of Communism. This means that the experience 
of the avant-garde, as much as the experience of radical criticism appears to us today 
only from our post-communist (post-totalitarian, or post-ideological) perspective, 
which means, as being a phenomenon of our past, as being a phenomenon, to use 
Fukuyama's notion, of a lower level of the ideological evolution of the mankind - as 
something, that as a problem belongs, to use words of the Czegue colleague, to an 
older generation which is, sooner or later, going to die out. 

But let me, at this point, pose an "impossible" guestion: is communism really dead? 
As far as I know, it is not only still alive, but also proves, in some fields, its superiority 
over capitalism. Yes, I really mean today's China. (Please don't tell me that this is not 
the real communism. There has never been a real communism. I can remember very 
well that from the perspective of Yugoslav communism - also often dismissed, due to 
the market economy, as not being an authentic, real one - the Soviet and whole East- 
block communism was defined as a sort of state-capitalism). 

Why don't we then learn about radical criticism and self-criticism from Chinese com- 



120 



munists who obviously seem to have been more successful than their western com- 
rades? 

But before we ask the highest theoretical authority of the Chinese communism 
about the true meaning of criticism and self-criticism, let me remind you of a histori- 
cal fact: In the historical reality of the nineteenth and twentieth century the idea of 
communist revolution became itself an institution - in the form of the communist 
movement, that is, in the form of communist political parties. As an institution, the 
communist movement also developed its own institution of criticism, the institution 
of so-called self-criticism, which played an extremely important role in its history: to 
inform the self-conscious subject of revolutionary action and later of a socialist com- 
munity. 

For Chairman Mao, conscientious practice of self-criticism was one of the most 
important hallmarks distinguishing a communist Party from all other political parties. 
Let me guote him: "As we say, dust will accumulate if a room is not cleaned regularly 
our faces will get dirty if they are not washed regularly. Our comrades' minds and our 
Party's work may also collect dust, and also need sweeping and washing." Therefore, 
self-criticism is for Mao "(. . .) the only effective way to prevent all kinds of political dust 
and germs from contaminating the minds of our comrades and the body of our Party." 

Today, this sounds very funny for us, like an infantile ideological fairy tale, but let me 
point at a crucial contradiction in Mao's concept of self-criticism: it has nothing to do 
whatsoever with the crisis of capitalism or with any sort of crisis. Although Mao de- 
scribes communist self-criticism as the most effective weapon of Marxism-Leninism, he 
doesn't justify it with the ideological principals of Marxism-Leninism. On the contrary, 
his definition of self-criticism seems to be completely non-ideological, simply a mat- 
ter of trivial common sense: a clean face is better than a dirty one, a clean room better 
than one full of dust, germs are bad for health, etc. 

Why this trivialization? And, what is even more important, where is the crisis, where 
has it gone, why has it suddenly disappeared? Why this particular form of communist 
criticism - a self-criticism that is not related to any sort of crisis? 

In the guise of the communist political movement both the crisis of capitalism and 
its criticism have merged into one single institution in which there is no possibility to 
differentiate between them. In other words, precisely in merging together they have 



become each other's outside. For the communist movement the crisis of capitalism 
was suddenly out there, in the outside of its own institution. But for capitalism too, the 
criticism of its crisis can now be perceived only as coming from its own outside. 

The result is that communists couldn't see themselves as being part of the capitalist 
crisis and therefore, instead of resolving it, through their criticism, they have finally suc- 
ceeded in making it stronger, more efficient, which means, in making the crisis more 
sustainable, or simply, permanent. 

The problem was that communism and capitalism, or if you want, capitalism as 
crisis and its communist criticism have never reached the point of a radical mutual 
exclusion, but on the contrary, were helping each other in moments of crises. 

Why should we forget that it was precisely American capital which helped the Bol- 
shevik Russia to recover from the destructions of the civil war? Why forget the role of 
art in this story? The Soviets, as it is well known, were exchanging some of the most 
precious and also most expensive art works, mostly French paintings from the nineteen 
century, for new industrial technology from the United States. In our liberal jargon we 
would call it today a perfect win-win situation. The one side could get rid of what it 
considered at that time meaningless and historically obsolete, that is, of the bourgeois 
art, whereas the other side could expand its markets, push forward employment and 
conseguently stabilize the social situation, pacify its working class, that is - prevent the 
crisis. 

This was not possible because, as many stupid anticommunists believe today, Bol- 
sheviks were primitives who couldn't recognize the real value of art works they pos- 
sessed. Far from that. They knew very well, and this according to the pure capitalist 
logic, about the market value of those art works. They treated them exclusively as 
commodities. But this became possible only after these art works were artistically 
devaluated, after they had lost their artistic value as a conseguence of an authentic 
art-criticism. It was actually the avant-garde art that stated the crisis of traditional art 
and - within what we today understand as pure history of art - radically criticised all 
these French paintings and destroyed their artistic value. 

Moreover, it was now the avant-garde art itself which needed factories and working 
masses - in order to articulate its artistic principles and produce its own artistic values 
- instead of museums and depots to collect its works of art there and present them to 



an audience they didn't care about and were actually disgusted with. And who could 
provide these factories and this working class that it needed? - American industrial 
technology that is, capitalism. 

This is a wonderful example of how crisis and criticism of both capitalism and art 
can successfully work together, of course within an overall capitalist setting, in order to 
produce - normality! 

Another example of how capitalism and communism can function in harmony is 
of course today's China. It is - to translate the reality into the dialectics of crisis and its 
criticism - precisely the rule of an institutionalized criticism of capitalism, that is, the 
rule of the Chinese communist party, that today helps the capitalist crises to survive, 
which means to persist. Not only by opening the world's largest market to the global 
corporate capital, but also by providing it with cheap and highly disciplined labour. 

This doesn't happen, as so many believe, because today's Chinese communists have 
betrayed the very principles of the communist idea, that is, stopped to criticise capital- 
ism and started to improve it. They have not betrayed Mao. On the contrary, they stick 
faithfully to his true legacy. 

Let me guote again the Chairman, when he, talking about the necessity of self- 
criticism, advocates the need for personal sacrifice: "As we Chinese Communists, who 
(...) never balk at any personal sacrifice and are ready at all times to give our lives 
for the cause, can we be reluctant to discard any idea, viewpoint, opinion or method 
which is not suited to the needs of the people? Can we be willing to allow political dust 
and germs to dirty our clean faces or eat into our healthy organisms? (. . .) can there be 
any personal interest (. . .) that we would not sacrifice or any error that we would not 
discard?" 

Just to remember: Famous Stalinist mock trials would have never been possible 
without the institution of self-criticism and personal sacrifice. As it is today well known, 
they were introduced at the beginning of thirties, precisely at the moment when the 
collectivization started to bring about catastrophic results, that is when Soviet society 
came into deep crisis. 

It was the self-criticism that then helped to project this crisis into an outside, to 
present it as an effect of the subversion from the outside, a work of imperialist spies 
and agents. It was therefore completely understandable that the institution had to 



be cleaned up from all those "germs and parasites" which had eaten into the healthy 
organism of Soviet society. 

Criticism - in the guise of communist self-criticism - was used (or if you like misused) 
- not to disclose the real crisis and its antagonisms, and to intervene in it (which would 
have been a classical Marxist approach), but on the contrary to hide it and in this way 
to make it permanent, that is, to transform or translate crisis in some sort of normality. 

This is typical for today's situation: neither are we able to experience our time as crisis 
nor do we try to become subjects through an act of criticism. 

In the time of classical modernism, crisis was always experienced as an actual pos- 
sibility of a break and criticism as this break itself. 

Today we are obviously not able to make such an experience any more. There is no 
experience whatsoever of an interaction between crisis and critique. 

One cannot simply ignore the warning of Giorgio Agamben - that one of the most 
important experiences of our times is the fact that we are not able to make any experi- 
ence of it. The result is a permanent criticism, which is blind for the crisis, and a perma- 
nent crisis, which is deaf for the criticism, in short - a perfect harmony! 



Literature: 

Moo: see Internet 

Reinhart Koselleck, "Kritik und Krise" Frankfurt am Main:Suhrkamp, 1979. 




DiSiPLiN-DI$l 
SORU$TURMALAR: 
KURUMLARIN YENl BlR 
ELE}TiRiSiNE DOGRU 



BRIAN HOLMES 



Giderek daha fazla sanatgiyi, ozgur dusunumsellik ve safestetik gibi nosyonlarla 
tanimlanmis, galeri-dergi-muze-koleksiyon cemberi tarafindan cisim kazandinlmis ve 
resim ve heykel gibi normatif turlerin belleginin izlerini tasiyan disiplinlerin sinirlarinm 
disinda cali$maya iten mantik, gereksinim ve arzu nedir? 

Pop art, kavramsal sanat, beden sanati, performans ve video pratiginin her biri, 
daha altmi§li veyetmi$li yillarda disipliner cercevede yirtilmalar yaratmaya ba$lami$ti 
bile. Digeryandan, bu dramatize edilmi$ patlamalann kullandigi konulan, malzemeleri 
ya da di$avurumsal teknikleri ithal etmekle yetindigi galeriya da muzenin, estetigin 
onceligini vurgulayan, sanat alaninda gorevli insanlar tarafindan idare edilen, Yves 
Klein'm birzamanlar "uzmanlasmis" ambiyans olarak tanimladigi yere geri cekilmek- 
ten ibaret kaldigi da iddia edilebilir. Bu tur bir arguman, en basta Robert Smithson'un 
1972'de kulturel sinirlandinlmislik uzerine kaleme aldigi metinde ortaya konmus, daha 
sonra Brian O'Doherty'nin beyaz kubun ideolojisi uzerine yazdigi tezlerle gelistirilmisti'. 
Sozkonusu metinler halen bir gecerlilige sahipler. Ama bugunlerdeyeni bir patla- 

1 Robert Smithson, "Kulturel Sinirlamm" (1972), Jack Flam (ed.), Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings, Berkeley, U.C. Press, 1996; Brian 
O'Doherty, Inside the White Cube: The Ideology of the Gallery Space (genisletilmis edisyon), Berkeley, U.C. Press, 1 976/1 986. 



126 



ma dizisiyle karsi karsiyayiz: Netart, biyo-sanat, gorsel cografya, mekan sanati ve 
veritabani sanati. Bunlara simdiye kadar bu isimle vaftiz edilmemis mimari-sanati, ya 
da mimarligin sanati, kokeni yirmili yillardaki konstruktivizme uzanan makine sanati 
ya da dogumu gecen sene Madrid'in Casa Encendida'si tarafindan Wan edilen "finans 
sanati" da eklenebilir. 

Listenin heterojen niteligi, teori He pratigin bulustugu her sahaya uygulanabilirligini 
getiriyor hemen akla. Ortaya cikan sanatsal bicimlerde sanatin en basta kendini 
tanimladigi, dikkatleri yeniden disavurum, temsil, egretileme ya dayapibozum gibi 
kendine ait islemlere cektigi eski modernist yonelimin izlerini bulmak her zaman icin 
mumkun olacak. Ele aldigi her tiir "konu"dan bagimsiz olarak sanat, felsefi mesrulugu 
Kant tarafindan tesis edilmis bir hamle araciligiyla, bu tur bir ozdusunumselligi kendini 
aynstiran ve tanimlayan ozellik olarak ve hatta varliginin nedeni olarak ortaya koyma 
egilimini tasiyor. Ama tartismak istedigim sanat turunde daha baska turden bir seyler 
olmakta. 

"Nettime" projesinin sahip oldugu kolektif arzulan tanimlamak icin kullandiklan 
kelime araciligiyla yaklasabiliriz buna. Bahsi gecen maillesme listesini olusturan 
-doksanli yillann sonunda Net.art'in onemli bir vektoru olan -sanatcilar, kuramcilar, 
medya aktivistleri ve programcilar icin mesele Internet'e, o donemde insa asamasinda 
olan tekno-bilimsel altyapiya dair "ickin bir elestiri" gelistirebilmekti. 

Bu elestiri ag orgunun icinde gerceklestirilmeli, onun dilini ve teknik gereclerini 
kullanmali, onun karakteristik nesneleri uzerinde yogunlasmali ve onun donusumunu 
etkilemeli, hatta ona dogrudan bicim vermeliydi. Ama ayni zamanda cevrimin 
disindaki dagilim olasiliklan da gozardi edilmemeliydi 2 . Taslagi cizilen sey, toplu- 
mu sarsma potansiyelini tasiyan bir zemineyerlesmek He uzmanlasilmis alandan 
disan dogru yayilmak; (kendi efsunlu cemberine siginan bir narsizm ve bicimcilikle 
ozdeslestirilen) sanat disiplini, (yasanmakta olan donusumlerle yuzlesemeyecek de- 
recede akademik ve tarihci bulunan) kulturel elestiri disiplini ve (yasanan am yaka- 
layamayacak derecede doktriner ve ideolojik gorulen) sol aktivizm "disiplini (boyle 
tanimlanabilirse eger) uzerinde degisim etkisi yaratmakyonunde acikca tanimlanmis 
bir amac tasiyan iki kanalli biryol. 



2 ReadMe! antolojisindeki giri$ bolumcesine bakiniz; New York, Autonomedia, 1 999. ickin ele$tirinin en iyi orneklerden bin Web'i gezilebilir bir alana 
ddnu^tiiren domain isim sistemini (DNS) yeniden duzenlemeye caiman Paul Garrin'in "Name Space"; ss. 224-29. 



Burada sozkonusu olan sey sanatcilar kadar kuramcilan ve aktivistleri de iceren 
biryonelim ve dusunumsellik araciligiyla geneksel olarak pratiklere bicilen sinirlann 
otesine gecmek. Yonelim sozcugu baska bir seye dogru donme arzusu ve gereksini- 
mini, dissal bir sahaya ya da disipline dogru hareketi imliyor. Digeryandan dusunum 
nosyonu ise, burada cikis noktasma dogru elestirel bir ddnu.se: Baslangigtaki disiplini 
donusturme, onu yalitimdan kurtarma cabasina; yeni ifade, cozumleme, isbirligi ve 
baglanim olasiliklanni acma ugrasina karsilik geliyor. Bu ileri-geri devinim ya da daha 
dogru bir ifadeyle donusumsel spiral, disiplin-disi sorusturmalar olarak adlandiracagim 
isletim ilkesini tanimliyor. 

Kavramin gelistirilmesinde guncel imleme pratiklerini etkileyen cift katmanli bir 
hedefsizligin, hatta (Situasyonistler'in aradigi devrimci niteliklere sahip olmayan) cifte 
suruklenmenin otesine gecme cabasi ml oynadi. Aklimda olan sey oncelikle, akademik 
ve kulturel cevrelerdeki disiplinlerarasiliga dair soylemlerde gorulen enflasyon: Bilissel 
sermayeye ait simgesel degirmeni besleyen, finansa ait sayisiz finldaga eklemlenen 
virtuozce bir kombinasyon sistemi (ki kurator Hans-Ulrich Obrist'in bu tur kombinasyon 
duzeneklerindeki uzmanligi hatirlanabilir burada). I kind olarak disiplin-sizligin duru- 
muyani, altmisli yillarda oznenin pazann estetik tahriklerine teslim olmasiyla sonucla- 
nan anti-otoriter baskaldirilann arzulanmayan etkisi: Neopop anlamda disiplin-siz 
onceden uretilmis ticari imgelerin akismin bitimsiz bicimde yinelenmesi ve remikslen- 
mesine karsilik geliyor. Ayni sey olmasalar da disiplinlerarasilik [interdisciplinarity] ve 
disiplin-sizlik [indiscipline] oneme sahip sorgulamalann tesirsiz hale getirilmesinde en 
fazla kullanilan bahaneler haline gelmis durumdalar 3 . Ama onlan kabullenmek gibi bir 
zorunluluk da yok ortada. 

Disiplin-disi [extra-disciplinary] heves sanat kadar finans, biyotek, cografya, kentci- 
lik, psikiyatri, elektromanyetik spektrum gibi farkli sahalar uzerine derin sorusturmalar 
gerceklestirmeyi, bu sahalara "yetilerin ozgur oyunu"nu ve modern sanata ozgu 
oznelliklerarasi deneyselligi tasimayi hedeflemekte. Ama ayni zamanda yine estetik 
oyunun muhalifnitelikli ozgurlugunun bu alanlar dahilindeki spektakuler ve aracsal 
kullanimlanni saptamaya calismakta (mimar Eyal Weizman'in, baslangic asamasinda 
muhalif mimari stratejiler olarak algilanan seylerin nasil da daha sonradan Israil ve 
Amerikan ordulan tarafindan temelluk edildigini arastmrken ornekledigi gibi). Weiz- 

3 Brian Holmes, "Disiplindiji", Hans-Ulrich Obrist ve Laurence Basse (ed.), Traversees, katalog, Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 2001. 



128 



man Israil'deki guvenlik altyapilannin haritalanni cizerek orduya kendi sahasinda mey- 
dan okuyordu. Ama ayni zamanda oradan getirdigi seyler kendi uzmanlastigi disiplini 
elestirel bir sorgulamaya tabi tutocok unsurlar olabilmisti. 4 Farkli disiplinlerin varhgini 
yadsimayan ama digeryandan bunlardan herhangi birine hapsolmaya karsi koyan bu 
caprasik hareket birzamanlar kurumsal elestiri olarak adlandinlmis olan sey icin yeni 
bir cikis noktasi saglayabilir. 

Simdiki Zaman icinde Tarihler 

Geriye donuslu bicimde bakilarak kurumsal elestirinin "ilk kusagi" olarak saptanan 
isimler arasinda Michael Asher, Robert Smithson, Daniel Buren, Hans Haacke ve 
Marcel Broodthaers yer almaktaydi. Kendi etkinliklerini belirleyen kosullan, muzenin 
ideolojik ve ekonomik cercevesini ele alarak sorgulamislar, bununla cerceveyi 
kirmaya calismislardi. Altmisli ve yetmisli yillardaki kurum-karsiti baskaldinlarla ve 
onlara eslik eden felsefi elestirilerle guclu iliskileri vardi 5 . Onlann muze uzerindeki 
odaklanmisliklanni kuruma atfedilen birsmir ya da onun fetislestirilmesi olarak 
degilde, icinde bulunulan baglam hakkinda farkindaliga ve baglami asmayayone- 
lik donusumsel niyetlere sahip, madded bir praksis olarak gormek daha verimli olur. 
Onlann hikayelerinin nerelere uzandigini gorebilmek icin ise Benjamin Buchloh'un 
yazilanna bakmamiz ve onun kurumsal elestirinin cikisini nasil cerceveledigini incele- 
memiz gerekiyor. 

"Kavramsal Sanat 1962-69" baslikli bir metinde Buchloh, Lawrence Weiner'e ait 
anahtar niteliginde iki onermeyi alintihyor. Bunlardan ilki Kullanilan Bir Kilimden Kes- 
ilip Almmis Bir Kare; ikincisi ise A 36"x 36" Bir Duvardan Dilmeye, Alci Destek Duvanna 
ya da Duvar Kartonuna Tasima (ikisi de I968yapimi). Her ikisinde de mesele, mumkun 
olan en kendine-gondergeli, en totolojik bicimi olusturabilmek: Her kenan digerini 
tekrarlayan ve vurgulayan kare ve onu toplumsal dunyanin belirlenimciliginin izini 
tasiyan bir ortama yerlestirmek. Buchloh'un yazdigi gibi: "Klasik geometriye gosterdigi 
saygi araciligiyla bicimsel geleneklerle yapisal ve morfolojik baglantilar kuruyor 
olmasina ragmen bu iki mudahele de, gelenegin surekli olarak inkar ettigi, kurum- 
lara ve/veya eve ait destek yuzeyler uzerinde varolmayi tercih ediyor. . . Bir yandan, 
bir sanat yapitiyla "ozellikle secilmis"ya da "yeterli nitelige haiz gorulmus" sekilde 



4 Eyai Weizman, "Duvarlann Iginden Geqmek", http://transform.eipcp.net/transversal/0507. 

5 Stefan Nowotny, "Kanonla$tirma-kar$itligi: Kurumsal Elestirinin Farksal Bilgisi," http://transform.eipcp.net/transversal/0106/nowotny/en/f_ftn6. 



konumlandmlmisken karsilasmak gibi bir beklentiyi bosa cikanyor. . . Digeryandan, 
bu destek yuzeylerinin kendi kurumsal konumlanndan bagimsiz bicimde algilanmasi 
da mumkun degil, cunku her biryuzey uzerindeki fiziksel islemeler kacinilmaz bicimde 
baglamsal okumalan mumkun kiliyor 6 . . ." 

Weiner'in sanat kurumlannin soylemsel ve maddiyapilannm unsurlanni da tasiyan 
onermeleri, acik bicimde bir ickin elestiri turevine karsilik geliyordu, ama ayni za- 
manda da minimal ve kavramsal aksiyomlara bagli safmantiksal cikanmlar olarak 
tasarlanmislardi. Weiner'in bu onermeleri, Gordon Matta-Clark'm galeri mekanma 
kentsel esitsizlik ve irksal aynmcilik uzerinden meydan okuyan Bolmek (1973) ya da 
Pencere Patlatma (1976) gibi "anarchitecture" calismalanndaki simgesel aktivizmi 
oncelemekteydi. Bu cikis noktasindan hareketle bir sanatsal elestiri tarihi, aktivizm 
ve aynmciliga yonelik guncel bicimler uretebilirdi - ozellikle seksenli yillardaki AIDS 
salginina karsi sanatcilann harekete gecirilmesinde oldugu gibi. Ama altmislar 
veyetmislerdeki kulturel tarihin en yaygin versiyonlan bu yola dogru ilerlemedi. 
Buchloh'un meshur metninin altbasliginda soylendigi gibi, yetmislerdeki gee-mod- 
ernist sanatin erekbilimsel devinimi "idare estetiginden kurumlann elestirisine" dogru 
yonelmekteydi. Muzeyi, idealize edici bir Aydmlanma kurumu olarak algilayan Frank- 
furtcu vizyona karsilik gelmekteydi bu -tabii hem burokratik devlet hem de piyasa 
gosterisi tarafindan yipratilmis haliyle. 

Baska tarihler de yazilabilirdi: Sozkonusu olan icinde uzmanlasilmis "hucre"yi (Brian 
O'Doherty modernist galeriyi bu kelimeyle tanimlamisti) dunyaya uzanabilecek, 
yasayan ve devinen bir bilgi potansiyeline donusturme arzusuyla, bu uzmanlasilmis 
estetik mekana dair her seyin daha bastan bir tuzak olduguna, bir kapanma bicimi 
olarak tesis edilmis olduguna yonelik karsi-algilay is arasmdaki ikilem. Bu gerilim Mi- 
chal Asher'in keskin mudahalelerine, Hans Haacke'nin cekic etkisi tasiyan kinama 
beyanlarma, Robert Smithson'un paradokslar uzerine kurulu yersizlestirmelerine, gene 
yasinda devrimci surrealizm He girdigi iliskiden beslenmis olan Marcel Broodthaers'in 
melankolik mizahi ve siirsel duslemine zemin kazandirmisti. Bir harekete gonullu 
bicimde katilmamis sanatcilann cesitliliginin ve caprasikliginin kesinlikle indirgemeye 
maruz birakilmamasi gerekiyor. Bir diger indirgeme de belirli bir sunum alani, yani 
muze uzerindeki takintili yogunlasmadan geliyor: "kentsoylu kamusal alan"myitip 

6 Benjamin Buchloh, "Kavramsal Sanat 1 962- 7 969: idare Estetiginden Kurumlann Elestirisine," October 55 (Kis 1 990). 



130 



gitmekte olan bir kalintisi olarak muzenin yasi mi tutulacak, yoksa bu kurum "mekana 
ozguluk" uzerine gelistirilen fetislestirici soylem yardimiyla goklere mi cikanlacak? Bu 
iki tuzak cukuru seksenli yillarda ve doksanlann basinda ABD'de belirginlik kazanan 
kurumsal elestiri soylemi icine yerlesmisti. 

"Ikinci kusak" olarak adlandinlan doneme girilmisti. En cok alintilanan isimler 
arasinda Renee Green, Christian Philipp Miiller, Fred Wilson ve Andrea Eraser yer 
almaktaydi. Bu isimler muzeolojik sunuma dair sistematik bir arastirmaya girmisler, 
kurumun ekonomik guclerle olan baglanni ve Oteki'ye vitrine konacak bir nesne gibi 
davranan somurge bilimindeki epistemolojik koklerini incelemislerdi. Ama ayni za- 
manda oznelestiren birdonumu de eklemislerdi bu surece: Bu noktada, dissal guc 
hiyerarsilerini benligin icindeki muphemlikler olarak yeniden formule etmelerinde 
ve catiskili bir duyarliligi, temsile dair cok sayida bicim ve vektorun yanyanaligina 
acmalannda feminizm ve somurgesonrasi tarihyaziminin etkisi gozardi edilemezdi. 
Burada zorlayici bir muzakare olmakta: Ozellike Renee Green'in calismalannda 
oldugu gibi, uzmanlasilmis soylem cozumlemesi He insanin sinir sistemiyle girilen 
bedensellesmis deneysellik arasinda bir muzakere. . . Ama bu calismalarm cogu san- 
atsal pratiklerin kendi sinirlan uzerine gelistirilmis meta-dusunumler biciminde (dalga 
gecme amacli muze sunumlan ya da onceden yazilmis video performanslan) ortaya 
konmakta, herzaman icin acik bicimde finans destegi almis kurum larda sahnelenme- 
kteydi -o derece ki, elestirel sorusturmalan kendi suclamalarmdan ve kendi tahrip edici 
cikarimlanndan korumak giderek zorlasmaktaydi. 

Elestirel bir surecin nesnesi olarak kendini belirlemesi durumu Andrea Fraser'i, sanat- 
sal kurumu asilamaz, her seyi tanimlayan, iceriyeyoneltilmis elestirisinden beslenen bir 
cerceve olarak dusunmeye itmisti 7 . Bourdieu'nun sosyo-mesleki alanlann kapanikligina 
dair belirlenimci cozumlemesi, Weber'in demir kafesi He Foucault'nun "kisinin kendin- 
den ozgurlesme" arzusu arasmdaki derin kansikliga eklenerek, oznenin elinden kendi 
ruhsal zindani uzerine dusunmekten baska bir sey gelmedigi, bunun telafisi olarak 
birkac estetik 10 ks He yetinmek zorunda kaldigi bir basansizlik yonetimselligi dahilinde 

7 "Sanatin sanat alaninin di$inda varolamamasi gibi, biz de sanat alaninin dijinda olamayiz, en azindan sanatgilar, ele^tirmenler, kuratorler, vs... 
Eger bizim icin bir disansi yoksa, bu kurumun kusursuz bicimde kapanmis olmasindan ya da kurumun 'tumuyle idare altinda tutulan bir dunya'da 
bir aygit konumunda olmasindan ya da heryeri kaplayan bir ebata ve kapsama genislemis olmasindan degil. Neden kurumun bizim kendi icimizde 
olmasi ve kendimizden kurtulamiyor olmamizdan" Andrea Fraser, "Kurumlann Elestirisinden Elestiri Kurumuna", John C. Welchman (ed.), 
Institutional Critique and After, Zurih, JRP/Ringier, 2006. 



icsellestirilmisti 8 Ne yazik ki, butun bunlann Broodthaers'in 7 975'te kaleme aldigi tek 
sayfalik metne ekleyebilecegi pek bir seyyoktu. 9 Broodthaers'e gore suclu hisseden 
bir vicdanin tek alternatifi insanin kendi ne empoze ettigi korluktu -pek de bir cozum 
sayilmazdi bui Ama Fraser bu alternatifi benimsiyor ve argumanmi su cabayla ozetli- 
yordu: "Butun kurumu avangard'a ait 'ozelestiri' kurumunun potansiyel olarak yarattigi 
sey icin, yani elestiri kurumu icin savunmak". Statukoyla herhangi bir antagonistik, hat- 
ta agonistik iliskiye girmeksizin ve herseyden once, onu degistirme amaci tasimaksizin 
savunulmak istenen sey Danto, Dickie ve onlan izleyenler tarafindan reklami yapilan, 
kendine-hizmetten ibaret kalan "sanatin kurumsal teorisi"nin (yaniltici bicimde "dunya'' 
olarak tanimlanan nesne-yonelimli bir "cevre"nin uyeleri arasinda gidip gelen bir teori) 
mazoistce bir varyasyonu olmaktan oteye gecemiyor. Dongunun kendisi donguye 
baglanmis vaziyette ve altmisli veyetmisli yillann sanatinin buyuk-olcekli, caprasik, 
arastinci ve donusturucu projesi bir cikmaz sokaga saplanmis ve kendinden mem- 
nuniyet, atillik, ozerkliginyitirilmesi, teslimiyet ve farkli turde aracsallastinlmalar gibi 
kurumsal sonuclarla karsilasmis gorunuyor, 

Safha Degisimi 

Bu noktada bir sondan bahsetmek mantikli gozukuyor olsa da bazilan daha da 
ileriye gitmek istiyor. Bu konuda yapilacak ilk sey kurumsal elestirinin olasi ucuncu 
safhasinin araclanni, malzemelerini ve amaclarmi yeniden tanimlamak. Sanat 
cevresinden insanlan ve kaynaklan sanat alani icinde tukenip gitmeyen, farkli yerlere 
uzanabilen projelere ve deneylere baglayan montajlann kuramsallastinlmasinda, 
kurumsal cozumlemeye basvuranlar tarafindan gelistirilmis olan, yataygecislilik no- 
syonu kullaniliyor. w Bu projeler dogrudan sanat olarak adlandinlamaz artik. Bunlann 
daha ziyade, her seyi kucaklamaya calisan kurumsalliga indirgenemeyecek nitelikteki 
marjinalya da karsi-kulturel konumlann (toplumsal hareketler, siyasal dernekler, isgal 
evleri, ozerk universiteler) gercek anlamda, siklikla yer buldugu, dispinlinler arasmdaki 
dolasim uzerine temellendigi soylenebilir. 

Projeler kolektif olmaya egilimlidir. Ag orgu olarak isledikleri kolektifligin icerdigi 



8 Gerald Raunig, "Kurucu Pratikler. Ka^is, Tesis Etme, Donusturme," http://transform.eipcp.net/transversal/0106/raunig/en. 

9 Marcel Broodthaers, "Bien pensant olmak... ya da olmamak. Kor olmak." (1975), October 42, "Marcel Broodthaers: Yazilar, Soylesiler, 
Fotograflar" (Sonbahar 1987). 

10 Felix Guattari, Psychanalyse et transversalite: Essais d'analyse institutionnelle (1972), Paris, La Decouverte, 2003. 



132 



zorluklardan kacma egilimini de tasiyor olsalar boyledir bu. Olgunluga bilissel kapital- 
izm evreninde erismis proje hazirlayialan kendilerini caprasik toplumsal islevler icinde 
bulurlar ve bunion butun teknik aynntilanyla, dunyanin gidisatmin artik teknoloji ve 
orgutsel bicim tarafindan sekillendirildiginin farkindahgiyla degerlendirirler. Pek cok 
ornekte karsimiza cikan, arastirmalan sanatsal ya da akademik disiplinin smirlannin 
otesine gecereksurdurme arzusu kaynagini siyasal bagitlanimda bulmakta. Ama 
ayni zamanda bu omeklere ait analize dayanan surecler disavurumsal bir nitelik de 
tasimakta ve onlara gore her tur caprasik makine, bol bol etkilenim ve oznellik icer- 
mekte. Sozkonusu oznel ve analitik taraflar iletisimsel emegin bugunku uretimsel ve 
siyasal baglaminda birbiri icine gectiginde kurumsal elestirinin "ucuncu safha'sindan 
ya da daha farkli bir ifadeyle onceden kamusal alan olarak bilinen alandaki bir "safha 
degisimT'nden, yirmi birinci yuzyildaki kulturel ve entelektuel uretim baglamlarmi ve 
sekillerini etraflica donusturen bir degisimden, bahsedilebilir hale gelebilir. 

Transversal isimli web-derginin ortak redaksiyonuyla birlikte hazirlanan 
Multitudes'un bir sayisinda bu yaklasima ornekler getirilmekteydi. 11 Arastirmaya 
dayali pratiklerin sorunsal iceren sahasini haritalandirmakyeni bir sey olmayacakti 
belki ama, bu islem giderek daha acil bir gereksinim olmaya baslamisti. Kuratoryel bir 
recete sunmak yerine yapmaya calistigimizsey uzmanlasilmis disiplinlerin yasadigi 
kapanmalar; bunun sonucu olarak ortaya cikan entelektuel ve etkilesimsel felc hali; 
demokratik karar verme kapasitesinden yabancilasma ve buna bagli olarak yogun 
bicimde caprasik bir teknolojik toplumun ortaya cikmasi gibi eski sorunlara isik tut- 
mak. Bu tur kosullara karsi gelistirilmis olan disavurum, kamusal mudahillik ve elestirel 
dusunum bicimlerini disiplindisi olarak tanimlamak mumkun - ama sozcugu isaret 
etmek istedigi ufku kapatircasina fetislestirmemek kaydiyla. 

Qalismanm ozellikle teknopolitik meselelere egilen makaleleri dikkate almdiginda, 
Bruno Latour'a da yer verilseydi ilginc olmaz miydi dusuncesi gelebilir okurun zih- 
nine. Latour'un amaci "seyleri kamusal hale getirmek" ya da daha belirgin bir ifadeyle 
caprasik teknik nesneler He (dejure ya da de facto anlamda siyasal nitelikteki) ozgul 
karar verme surecleri arasmda yasanan ozgul karsilasmalara isik tutmak. Latour'un 
ifadelerine gore bunu yapmak icin olabildigince guclu, ama ayni zamanda kacinilmaz 
bicimde -tipki dunyaya ait her sey de oldugu gibi- "dagmik" bicimde tesis edilmis 

1 / Bkz. "Disiplindifilik," http://transform.eipcp.net/transversal/0507. 



"kanitlar" uzerinden ilerlemek gerekiyor. u 

Latour'un kanitlama makinesinde ilginc olan bir sey var (tartismasiz bicimde aka- 
demik "disiplinlerarasilik" uretkenligine meyletmesine ragmen). Gunumuzde seylerin 
nasil sekillendigine yonelik gosterilen ilgi ve bu sekillenmeyi belirleyen surec ve karar- 
lara yapici bicimde mudahil olma arzusu, artik mutlak bir disandanlikya da butunsel, 
sifiryili devriminin hayalini kurmayanlan karakterize eden ozellikler. Yine de konumlar 
arasmdaki farklan gormek icin Multitudes'un bahsi gecen sayisma davet ettigimiz 
sanatcilara bakmakyeterli olacak. Ne kadar ugrasilirsa ugrasilsin, 1750 kilometrelik 
Baku-Tiflis-Ceyhan boruhatti herhangi birseyin "kanit"ina indirgenebilecek bir sey degil 
-her ne kadar Ursula Biemann konuyu Karadeniz Dosyalan adh calismasinda on ayn 
bolumceye yogunlastirmis olsa da. 13 Akdeniz'e kavusmadan once Azerbey can, Gur- 
cistan ve Turkiye'den gecen boruhatti, aklm ve duslemin otesine tasan boyutu yaninda 
siyasal kararlann nesnesi konumunda ve butun gezegenin icinde oldugu geopolitik ve 
ekolojik belirsizligin ortasinda yer almakta. 

Benzer bicimde Angela Melitopoulos tarafindan kurulan Timescapes grubunun filme 
aldigi gibi, Avrupa'yi boylu boyunca kesen ve Yugoslavya, Yunanistan ve Turkiye'den 
gecen ulasim ve iletisim koridorlan cagimizm ulusotesi ve kitaotesi olceklere sahip en 
caprasik altyapi planlama sureclerinden birine karsilik geliyor. Yine de ozenli bicimde 
tasarlanmis bu ekonomikprojeleri, tarihte daha once gerceklestirilmis benzer oncul- 
lerinin catiskili belleginden; koridor-planlamasi surecinin gundelikyasam uzerinde 
manipulasyonlanna karsi gosterilen bilincli direnis ve kendiliginden orgutlenen kitlesel 
protesto gosterilerinin anilanndan koparmak mumkun degil. Insanlar (kendi imgelerini 
ve en mahrem duygulanimlanni bozarakyansitan medya aygitlanni da iceren) guclu 
ve geliskin araclarla yukandan empoze edilen iktisadi bir tezin yasayan "kanit"i olmak 
istemiyorlar. Selanik'te 2003'te duzenlenen AB zirvesi sirasmda duzenlenen gosterilerde 
TV kameralannin karsisinda isimsiz bir protestocunun elinde israrla salladigi pankart 
her seyi ozetliyor: 



12 Bruno Latour ve Peter Weibel (ed), Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy, Karlsruhe, ZKM, 2005. 

13 Ursula Biemann'in Black Sea Files basl/kli video yerlestirmesi Kulturotesi Cografyalar projesi baglaminda hazirlanmis ve once Berlin'deki Kunst- 
Werke'de diger yapitlarla birlikte (15 Aralik 2005 - 26 Subat2006), daha soma da Barselona'da Tapies Foundation'da (9 Mart-6 Mayis 2007) sergilendi; 
katalog Anselm Franke (ed. ve kurator) ), B-Zone: Becoming Europe and Beyond, Berlin, KW/Actar, 2005. 



134 



GERCEK HAYATTAKi iNSANLAR VE OLAYLAR iLE OLAN BENZERLiKLER KASITLI 
DEGILDIR. 14 

Sanat tarihi gunumuze agildi ve temsil kosullannin elestirisi sokaklarayayildi. Amo 
ayni devinim dahilinde, sokaklar da bizim elestirilerimizdeki yerlerini aldi. Multitudes 
projesindeyer verdigimiz felsefi makalelerde, kurum [institution] ve anayasa [con- 
stitution] sozcukleri yoksulluk [destitution] sozcuguyle kafiyeli bicimde tinlamakta. 
Disiplindisi sanat pratikleri uzerindeki ozel odaklanma radikal siyasetin unutuldugu 
anlamina gelmiyor - tarn tersine. Bugun herhangi biryapici sorusturma, daha once 
olmadigi seviyede, direnisin stardartlanm yukan cekmek zorunluluguyla karsi karsiya. 



Qeviri: Erden Kosova 



14 Angela Melitopoulos'un Timescapes'in diger uyeleriyle birlikte hazirladigi Corridor X ba$likli video yerlejtirmesi B-Zone: Becoming Europe and 
Beyond'de sergilendi ve sergi katalogunda yer aldi. 




EXTRADISCIPLINARY 
INVESTIGATIONS 
TOWARDS A NEW CRITIQUE 
OF INSTITUTIONS * 



BRIAN HOLMES 



What is the logic, the need or the desire that pushes more and more artists to work 
outside the limits of their own discipline, defined by the notions of free reflexivity and 
pure aesthetics, incarnated by the gallery-magazine-museum-collection circuit, and 
haunted by the memory of the normative genres, painting and sculpture? 

Pop art, conceptual art, body art, performance and video each marked a rupture 
of the disciplinary frame, already in the 1960-70s. But one could argue that these 
dramatized outbursts merely imported themes, media or expressive technigues back 
into what Yves Klein had termed the "specialized" ambiance of the gallery or the mu- 
seum, gualified by the primacy of the aesthetic and managed by the functionaries of 
art. Exactly such arguments were launched by Robert Smithson in his text on cultural 
confinement in 1972, then restated by Brian O'Doherty in his theses on the ideology 
of the white cube. 1 They still have a lot of validity. Yet now we are confronted with a 
new series of outbursts, under such names as net.art, bio art, visual geography, space 
art and database art - to which one could add an archi-art, or art of architecture, 
which curiously enough has never been baptized as such, as well as a machine art that 

1 Robert Smithson, "Cultural Confinement" (I 972), in Jack Flam (ed), Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings, Berkeley, U.C. Press, i 996; Brian 
O'Doherty, Inside the White Cube: The Ideology of the Gallery Space (expanded edition), Berkeley, U. C. Press, 1 976/1986. 

*This text is part of the new book by Brian Holmes, "Escape the Overcode: Activist Art in the Control Society", a collection of 20 essays published by 
WHW and the Van Abbemuseum. Text archive at brianholmes.wordpress.com. 



138 



reaches all the way back to 1920s constructivism, or even a "finance art" whose birth 
was announced in the Casa Encendida of Madrid just last summer. 

The heterogeneous character of the list immediately suggests its application to all 
the domains where theory and practice meet. In the artistic forms that result, one will 
always find remains of the old modernist tropism whereby art designates itself first 
of all, drawing the attention back to its own operations of expression, representation, 
metaphorization ordeconstruction. Independently of whatever "subject" it treats, art 
tends to make this self-reflexivity its distinctive or identifying trait, even its raison d'etre, 
in a gesture whose philosophical legitimacy was established by Kant. But in the kind of 
work I want to discuss, there is something more at stake. 

We can approach it through the word that the Nettime project used to define its 
collective ambitions. For the artists, theorists, media activists and programmers who 
inhabited that mailing list - one of the important vectors ofnet.artin the late 1990s 
- it was a matter of proposing an "immanent critigue" of the Internet, that is, of the 
technoscientific infrastructure then in the course of construction. This critigue was to 
be carried out inside the network itself using its languages and its technical tools and 
focusing on its characteristic objects, with the goal of influencing or even of directly 
shaping its development - but without refusing the possibilities of distribution outside 
this circuit. 2 What's sketched out is a two-way movement, which consists in occupying 
a field with a potential for shaking up society (telematics) and then radiating outward 
from that specialized domain, with the explicitly formulated aim of effecting change 
in the discipline of art (considered too formalist and narcissistic to escape its own 
charmed circle), in the discipline of cultural critigue (considered too academic and 
historicist to confront the current transformations) and even in the "discipline" - if you 
can call it that- of leftist activism (considered too doctrinaire, too ideological to seize 
the occasions of the present). 

At work here is a new tropism and a new sort of reflexivity involving artists as well 
as theorists and activists in a passage beyond the limits traditionally assigned to their 
practice. The word tropism conveys the desire or need to turn towards something else, 
towards an exterior field or discipline; while the notion of reflexivity now indicates a 



2 See the introduction to the anthology ReadMel, New York,Autonomedia, 1999. One of the best examples of immanent critique is the project "Name 
Space" by Paul Garrin, which aimed to rework the domain name system (DNS) which constitutes the web as a navigable space; cf pp. 224-29. 



critical return to the departure point, an attempt to transform the initial discipline, to 
end its isolation, to open up new possibilities of expression, analysis, cooperation and 
commitment. This back-and-forth movement, or rather, this transformative spiral, is 
the operative principle of what I will be calling extradisciplinary investigations. 

The concept was forged in an attempt to go beyond a kind of double aimlessness 
that affects contemporary signifying practices, even a double drift, but without the 
revolutionary gualities that the Situationists were looking for. I'm thinking first of the 
inflation of interdisciplinary discourses on the academic and cultural circuits: a vir- 
tuoso combinatory system that feeds the symbolic mill of cognitive capital, acting as a 
kind of supplement to the endless pinwheels of finance itself (the curator Hans-Ulrich 
Obrist is a specialist of these combinatories). Second is the state of indiscipline that 
is an unsought effect of the anti-authoritarian revolts of the 1960s, where the subject 
simply gives into the aesthetic solicitations of the market (in the neopop vein, indis- 
cipline means endlessly repeating and remixing the flux of prefabricated commercial 
images). Though they aren't the same, interdisciplinarity and indiscipline have become 
the two most common excuses for the neutralization of significant inguiry 3 But there is 
no reason to accept them. 

The extradisciplinary ambition is to carry out rigorous investigations on terrains as 
far away from art as finance, biotech, geography, urbanism, psychiatry, the electro- 
magnetic spectrum, etc., to bring forth on those terrains the "free play of the faculties" 
and the intersubjective experimentation that are characteristic of modern art, but also 
to try to identify, inside those same domains, the spectacular or instrumental uses so 
often made of the subversive liberty of aesthetic play - as the architect Eyal Weizman 
does in exemplary fashion, when he investigates the appropriation by the Israeli and 
American military of what were initially conceived as subversive architectural strate- 
gies. Weizman challenges the military on its own terrain, with his maps of security 
infrastructures in Israel; but what he brings back are elements for a critical examina- 
tion of what used to be his exclusive discipline. 4 This complex movement, which never 
neglects the existence of the different disciplines, but never lets itself be trapped by 



3 Cf. Brian Holmes, "L'extradisciplinaire," in Hans-Ulrich Obrist and Laurence Basse (eds.), Traversees, cat. Musee 'art moderne de la Ville de Paris, 
2001. 

4 Eyal Weizman, "Walking through Walls," at http://transform.eipcp.net/transversal/0507. 



140 



them either, can provide a new departure point for what used to be caiied institutionai 
critique. 

Histories in the Present 

What has been established, retrospectively, as the "first generation" of institutional cri- 
tique includes figures like Michael Asher, Robert Smithson, Daniel Buren, Hans Haacke 
and Marcel Broodthaers. They examined the conditioning of their own activity by the 
ideological and economic frames of the museum, with the goal of breaking out. They 
had a strong relation to the anti-institutional revolts of the 1960s and 70s, and to the 
accompanying philosophical critiques. 5 The best way to take their specific focus on the 
museum is not as a self-assigned limit or a fetishization of the institution, but instead 
as part of a materialist praxis, lucidly aware of its context, but with wider transforma- 
tory intentions. To find out where their story leads, however, we have to look at the 
writing of Benjamin Buchloh and see how he framed the emergence of institutional 
critique. 

In a text entitled "Conceptual Art 1962-1969," Buchloh quotes two key propositions 
by Lawrence Weiner. The first is A Square Removed from a Rug in Use, and the second, 
A 36"x 36" Removal to the Lathing or Support Wall of Plaster or Wallboard from a Wall 
(both 1968). In each it is a matter of taking the most self-referential and tautological 
form possible - the square, whose sides each repeat and reiterate the others - and 
inserting it in an environment marked by the determinisms of the social world. As 
Buchloh writes: "Both interventions - while maintaining their structural and morpho- 
logical links with formal traditions by respecting classical geometry. . . - inscribe them- 
selves in the support surfaces of the institutions and/or the home which that tradition 
had always disavowed. ...On the one hand, it dissipates the expectation of encounter- 
ing the work of art only in a 'specialized' or 'qualified' location. ...On the other, neither 
one of these surfaces could ever be considered to be independent from their institu- 
tional location, since the physical inscription into each particular surface inevitably 
generates contextual readings. . ." 6 



5 Cf. Stefan Nowotny, "Anti-Canonization: The Differential Knowledge of Institutional Critique," http://transform.eipcp.net/transversal/01 06/ 
nowotny/en/#_ftn6. 

6 Benjamin Buchloh, "Conceptual Art 1962-1969: From the Aesthetics of Administration to the Critique of Institutions," October 55 (Winter 1990). 



Weiner's propositions are clearly a version of immanent critique, operating flush 
with the discursive and material structures of the art institutions; but they are cast as 
a purely logical deduction from minimal and conceptual premises. They just as clearly 
prefigure the symbolic activism of Gordon Matta-Clark's "anarchitecture" works, like 
Splitting (1973) or Window Blow-Out (1976), which confronted the gallery space with 
urban inequality and racial discrimination. From that departure point, a history of 
artistic critique could have led to contemporary forms of activism and technopoliti- 
cal research, via the mobilization of artists around the AIDS epidemic in late 1 980s. 
But the most widespread versions of 60s and 70s cultural history never took that turn. 
According to the subtitle of Buchloh's famous text, the teleological movement of late- 
modernist art in the 1970s was heading "From the Aesthetics of Administration to the 
Critique of Institutions." This would mean a strictly Frankfurtian vision of the museum 
as an idealizing Enlightenment institution, damaged by both the bureaucratic state 
and the market spectacle. 

Other histories could be written. At stake is the tense double-bind between the desire 
to transform the specialized "cell" (as Brian O'Doherty described the modernist gallery) 
into a mobile potential of living knowledge that can reach out into the world, and the 
counter-realization that everything about this specialized aesthetic space is a trap, 
that it has been instituted as a form of enclosure. That tension produced the incisive 
interventions of Michal Asher, the sledgehammer denunciations of Hans Haacke, the 
paradoxical displacements of Robert Smithson, or the melancholic humor and poetic 
fantasy of Marcel Broodthaers, whose hidden mainspring was a youthful engage- 
ment with revolutionary surrealism. The first thing is never to reduce the diversity and 
complexity of artists who never voluntarily joined into a movement. Another reduc- 
tion comes from the obsessive focus on a specific site of presentation, the museum, 
whether it is mourned as a fading relic of the "bourgeois public sphere," or exalted with 
a fetishizing discourse of "site specificity." These two pitfalls lay in wait for the discourse 
of institutional critique, when it took explicit form in the United States in the late 80s 
and early 90s. 

It was the period of the so-called "second generation." Among the names most often 
cited are Renee Green, Christian Philipp Muller, Fred Wilson or Andrea Fraser. They 
pursued the systematic exploration of museological representation, examining its 



links to economic power and its epistemological mots in a colonial science that treats 
the Other like an object to be shown in a vitrine. But they added a subjectivizing turn, 
unimaginable without the influence of feminism and postcolonial historiography, 
which allowed them to recast external power hierarchies as ambivalences within the 
self, opening up a conflicted sensibility to the coexistence of multiple modes and vec- 
tors of representation. There is a compelling negotiation here, particularly in the work 
ofRenee Green, between specialized discourse analysis and embodied experimenta- 
tion with the human sensorium. Yet most of this work was also carried out in the form 
of meta-reflections on the limits of the artistic practices themselves (mock museum 
displays or scripted video performances), staged within institutions that were ever- 
more blatantly corporate - to the point where it became increasingly hard to shield 
the critical investigations from their own accusations, and their own often devastating 
conclusions. 

This situation of a critical process taking itself for its object recently led Andrea Fraser 
to consider the artistic institution as an unsurpassable, all-defining frame, sustained 
through its own inwardly directed critique. 7 Bourdieu's deterministic analysis of the 
closure of the socio-professional fields, mingled with a deep confusion between We- 
ber's iron cage and Foucault's desire "to get free of oneself," is internalized here in a 
governmentality of failure, where the subject can do no more than contemplate his or 
her own psychic prison, with a few aesthetic luxuries in compensation. 8 Unfortunately, 
it all adds very little to Broodthaers' lucid testament, formulated on a single page in 
1975. 9 For Broodthaers, the only alternative to a guilty conscience was self-imposed 
blindness - not exactly a solution! Yet Fraser accepts it, by posing her argument as an 
attempt to "defend the very institution for which the institution of the avant-garde's 
'self-criticism' had created the potential: the institution of critique." 



/ "Just as art cannot exist outside the field of art, we cannot exist outside the field of art, at least not as artists, critics, curators, etc.. ..if there is no outside 
for us, it is not because the institution is perfectly closed, or exists as an apparatus in a 'totally administered world,' or has grown all-encompassing in 
size and scope. It is because the institution is inside of us, and we can't get outside of ourselves." Andrea Fraser, "From the Critique of Institutions to 
the Institution of Critique," in John C Welchman (ed.), Institutional Critique and After, Zurich, JRP/Ringier, 2006. 

8 Cf. Gerald Raunig, "Instituent Practices. Fleeing, Instituting, Transforming," http://transform.eipcp.net/transversal/0106/raunig/en. 

9 Marcel Broodthaers, "To be bien pensant... or not to be. To be blind." (19/5), in October 42, "Marcel Broodthaers: Writings, Interviews, 
Photographs" (Fall 1 98/). 



Without any antagonistic or even agonistic relation to the status quo, and above all, 
without any aim to change it, what's defended becomes little more than a masochistic 
variation on the self-serving "institutional theory of art" promoted by Danto, Dickie 
and their followers (a theory of mutual and circular recognition among members of 
an object-oriented milieu, misleadingly called a "world"). The loop is looped, and what 
had been a large-scale, complex, searching and transformational project of 60s and 
70s art seems to reach a dead end, with institutional consequences of complacency, 
immobility, loss of autonomy, capitulation before various forms of instrumentaliza- 
tion... 

Phase Change 

The end may be logical, but some desire to go much further. The first thing is to rede- 
fine the means, the media and the aims of a possible third phase of institutional cri- 
tique. The notion oftransversality developed by the practitioners of institutional analy- 
sis, helps to theorize the assemblages that link actors and resources from the art circuit 
to projects and experiments that don't exhaust themselves inside it, but rather, extend 
elsewhere. 10 These projects can no longer be unambiguously defined as art. They are 
based instead on a circulation between disciplines, often involving the real critical 
reserve of marginal or counter-cultural positions - social movements, political associa- 
tions, squats, autonomous universities - which can't be reduced to an all-embracing 
institution. 

The projects tend to be collective, even if they also tend to flee the difficulties that 
collectivity involves, by operating as networks. Their inventors, who came of age in the 
universe of cognitive capitalism, are drawn toward complex social functions which 
they seize upon in all their technical detail, and in full awareness that the second 
nature of the world is now shaped by technology and organizational form. In almost 
every case it is a political engagement that gives them the desire to pursue their exact- 
ing investigations beyond the limits of an artistic or academic discipline. But their ana- 
lytic processes are at the same time expressive, and for them, every complex machine is 
awash in affect and subjectivity. It is when these subjective and analytic sides mesh 



1 Cf. Felix Guattari, Psychanalyse et transversalite: Essais d'analyse institutionnelle (19/2), Paris, La Decouverte, 2003. 



closely together, in the new productive and political contexts ofcommunicational 
labor (and not just in meta-reflections staged uniquely for the museum), that one can 
speak of a "third phase" of institutional critique - or better, of a "phase change" in what 
was formerly known as the public sphere, a change which has extensively transformed 
the contexts and modes of cultural and intellectual production in the twenty-first cen- 
tury 

An issue of Multitudes, co-edited with the Transform web-journal, gives examples of 
this approach. 11 The aim is to sketch the problematic field of an exploratory practice 
that is not new, but is definitely rising in urgency Rather than offering a curatorial reci- 
pe, we wanted to cast new light on the old problems of the closure of specialized disci- 
plines, the intellectual and affective paralysis to which it gives rise, and the alienation 
of any capacity for democratic decision-making that inevitably follows, particularly 
in a highly complex technological society. The forms of expression, public intervention 
and critical reflexivity that have been developed in response to such conditions can be 
characterized as extradisciplinary - but without fetishizing the word at the expense of 
the horizon it seeks to indicate. 

On considering the work, and particularly the articles dealing with technopolitical 
issues, some will probably wonder if it might not have been interesting to evoke the 
name of Bruno Latour. His ambition is that of "making things public," or more precisely, 
elucidating the specific encounters between complex technical objects and specific 
processes of decision-making (whether these are dejure or de facto political). For that, 
he says, one must proceed in the form of "proofs," established as rigorously as possible, 
but at the same time necessarily "messy," like the things of the world themselves. 12 

There is something interesting in Latour's proving machine (even if it does tend, 
unmistakably, toward the academic productivism of "inter disciplinarity"). A concern 
for how things are shaped in the present, and a desire for constructive interference in 
the processes and decisions that shape them, is characteristic of those who no longer 
dream of an absolute outside and a total, year-zero revolution. However, it's enough 
to consider the artists whom we invited to the Multitudes issue, in order to see the 
differences. Hard as one may try, the 1750 km Baku-Tiblisi-Ceyhan pipeline cannot be 



1 1 See "Extradisciplinaire," http://transform.eipcp.net/transversal/0507. 

12 Bruno Latour, Peter Weibel (eds), Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy, Karlsruhe, ZKM, 2005. 



reduced to the "proof" of anything, even if Ursula Biemann did compress it into the 
ten distinct sections of the Black Sea Files. 13 Traversing Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey 
before it debouches in the Mediterranean, the pipeline forms the object of political 
decisions even while it sprawls beyond reason and imagination, engaging the whole 
planet in the geopolitical and ecological uncertainty of the present. 

Similarly the Paneuropean transport and communication corridors running 
through the former Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey, filmed by the participants of the 
Timescapes group initiated by Angela Melitopoulos, result from the one of the most 
complex infrastructure-planning processes of our epoch, carried out at the transna- 
tional and transcontinental levels. Yet these precisely designed economic projects are 
at once inextricable from the conflicted memories of their historical precedents, and 
immediately delivered over to the multiplicity of their uses, which include the staging 
of massive, self-organized protests in conscious resistance to the manipulation of daily 
life by the corridor-planning process. Human beings do not necessarily want to be the 
living "proof" of an economic thesis, carried out from above with powerful and sophis- 
ticated instruments - including media devices that distort their images and their most 
intimate affects. An anonymous protester's insistent sign, brandished in the face of the 
TV cameras at the demonstrations surrounding the 2003 EU summit in Thessalonica, 
says it all: ANY SIMILARITY TO AGTUAL PERSONS OR EVENTS IS UNINTENTIONAL. M 

Art history has emerged into the present, and the critique of the conditions of repre- 
sentation has spilled out onto the streets. But in the same movement, the streets have 
taken up their place in our critiques. In the philosophical essays that we included in 
the Multitudes project, institution and constitution always rhyme with destitution. The 
specific focus on extradisciplinary artistic practices does not mean radical politics has 
been forgotten, far from it. Today more than ever, any constructive investigation has to 
raise the standards of resistance. 



13 The video installation Black Sea Files by Ursula Biemann, done in the context of the Transcultural Geographies project, has been exhibited with 
the other works of that project at Kunst-Werke in Berlin, Dec. 1 5, 2005 - Feb. 26, 2006, then at Tapies Foundation in Barcelona, March 9 - May 6, 2007; 
published in Anselm Frank (ed. and curator), B-Zone: Becoming Europe and Beyond, cat, Berlin, KW/Actar, 2005. 

14 The video installation Corridor X by Angela Melitopoulos, with the work of the other members of Timescapes, has been exhibited and published in 
B-Zone: Becoming Europe and Beyond, op. cit. 



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